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Unformatted text preview: Deviance and Social Control Control
DSOC 1101: Introduction to Sociology February 23, 2009 1 Deviant Behavior What do insanity, emotional disorder,
leprosy, senility, anatomical abnormalities, and crime all have in common?
1. They are all deviant; that is, they all violate some normative code or codes 2. They are perceived as threats (To what? To Whom?) 3. They all evoke a predictable set of responses from others
2 Defining Deviance “It is not the act itself, but the reactions to the act, that
make something deviant” – Howard Becker, 1966 Deviance is any behavior that is socially challenged
and/or condemned because it departs from the norms and expectations of the group Relative concept - what is deviant to some is not deviant to others Nonconformity to a given set of norms that are accepted
by a significant number of people in a community or society. 3 1 Deviance is Socially Constructed Deviant to whom? What is deviant depends upon the context of the act or Dominant Moral Codes – no act is universally defined as deviant Definition of the act (murder or punishment?) of the act (murder or punishment?) How many consider it deviant? POWER Intensity of response behavior 4 Social Social Construction of Deviance Deviance equals norm violation. Norms do vary. People become deviant as others define/label Both rule making and breaking involve social Problems: exceptions and contingencies
power power them as such (e.g. self-fulfilling prophecy) self- 5 Functions of Deviance Affirms cultural values and norms Clarifies moral boundaries Promotes social unity by creating an us/them
dichotomy dichotomy Encourages social change 6 2 Two Approaches to Deviance 1. Deviance as a norm violation 2. 2. Deviance as a label imposed by social
groups or society 7 Social Control A society or group’s formal and informal
means of enforcing norms Formal sanctions Informal sanctions sanc 8 Labeling Theory
(symbolic interactionist) Deviance is socially constructed Focuses on the significance of labels Labels become a part of self-concept self Self-fulfilling prophecy – labels propel Selftowards or away from deviance Form of power and social control 9 3 Resistance and Response to Labeling Denial of Responsibility – individual propelled Denial of Injury – crime did/does not hurt Denial of the Victim – victim did not receive of the Victim victim did not receive Condemnation of the Condemners injury injury but rather, rightful force. condemners are hypocrites, deviants as well. anyone, not morally wrong. helplessly into crime. Appeal to Higher Authority – act commitment in Embrace label – outlaw bikers the name of god or in loyalty to family or friends. 10 Medicalization of Deviance Refers to the influence of psychiatry and
medicine in the attachment of medical labels to behavior regarded as socially or morally undesirable morally undesirable. 11 11 Differential Association Theory
(symbolic interactionist) Criminal activities are learned via association with others Focuses on The age of the learner of deviance The quality of contact between the learner and the deviant role model (e.g. family, friends, neighbors, subculture, etc). the relationship between the learner and the deviant model. th th th Helps to explain how children grow up to become lawlawbreakers or juvenile offenders 12 4 Strain Theory
(functionalist) Social values produce deviance Focuses on (1) societal goals/expectation and (2) The individual’s response to societal expectations and
institutional means the means by which the individual pursued those goals explain deviance explain deviance. Possible responses/outcomes: Conformity - acceptance of both goals and means. Innovation – acceptance of the goals and rejection of the means; can be positive or negative. Ritualism – rejection of the goal and acceptance of the means. Retreatism – rejection of both the goal and means Rebellion – rejection of both the goal and means and active attempt to replace them with other systems which are more acceptable to the individual.
13 Control Control Theory
(Symbolic Interactionist) Inner Controls – morality, conscience,
religious principles Outer Controls – attachments,
commitments, involvements, beliefs that certain actions are morally wrong 14 5 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2009 for the course DSOC 1101 taught by Professor Hirshel during the Spring '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).
- Spring '07