All Chapters - by Ray

All Chapters - by Ray - Sept 12/06 Psychology: The Science...

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Unformatted text preview: Sept 12/06 Psychology: The Science of Behaviour Chapter 1 The Nature of Psychology Psychology: Is the study of behaviour and the factors that influence it. Behaviour represents both actions we observe and mental events, inner processes (thoughts, feelings, images) Psychology explains the nature of our motives, thoughts, feelings and behaviour. Forms of behaviour take into account biological, individual and environmental factors Psychology as a Basic and Applied Science Basic Research: quest for knowledge purely for its own sake. Ex/ Describing how people behave and the factors of influence. Applied Research: designed to solve specific, practical questions using principles discovered through basic research to solve problems. How can interracial conflict be lessened in multicultural schools? Basic research explore factors that increase or decrease intergroup hostility Ex/ The Robbers Cave camp study. 11 yr old boys were separated into 2 groups and 2 separate cabins (description) Second week the 2 groups had a series of competitions against each other, which created hostility. (understanding) Next, the 2 groups were forced to work together to achieve goals, thus making them work together (prediction) Therefore, competition creates hostility and conflict b/w groups and making each group dependent on each other makes them cooperate(influence and control) Jigsaw Program: another program/study developed requiring children to cooperate not compete. Involving 5-6 children of different ethnicities in a group all with different pieces of Pierre Elliot Trudeaus life. Making them need to cooperate with each other to put everything back in order This cooperative learning technique in classrooms makes each child feel appreciated and teaches them to appreciate others due to them having to teach one another which segment they had and having to organize as a team Goals of Psychology: 1. Describe how animals/people behave 2. Explain and understand causes of behaviours 3. Predict how people/animals behave under certain conditions 4. Influence or control behaviour through knowledge and control of its causes to enhance human welfare. What am I doing? (description) Why did she do that? (understanding/explanation) What will happen if I do it this way? (prediction) How can I make things happen the way I want things to work out? (influence/control) Perspectives on Behaviour: Guides to Understanding and Discovery Perspectives are the ways to analyze behaviour and its biological, psychological and environmental causes. 6 Major Perspectives characterize contemporary psychological thought: Attempting to address timeless philosophical questions about human nature 1. Biological (Brains, genes, and behaviour): Focuses on the physical side of human nature o Mind-body problem- is our mind a spiritual entity separate from the body?...
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All Chapters - by Ray - Sept 12/06 Psychology: The Science...

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