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Biology notes 10 Sept 2008

Biology notes 10 Sept 2008 - c bacteria are dead light gray...

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September 10, 2008 1 • Alexander Flemming discovered antibiotics by leaving a bacteria plate out Antibiotic: • organic compound that inhibits the growth of microbes • organic – has carbon • includes synthetics • before antibiotics people died from seemingly minor ailments • penicillin debuted at the start of WW2 • bacteria are prokaryotes • reproduce (divide) very fast – faster than every 20 minutes Antibiotics – Mode of Action • penicillin, vancomycin disrupt cell wall formation • streptomycin, tetracycline disrupt protein synthesis • cipro disrupts DNA replication • some bacteria become insensitive to antibiotics • growth no longer inhibited • resistance is aquired • huge public health problem • plate shows how we test for antibiotic resistance – dark grey is dead zone b/
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Unformatted text preview: c bacteria are dead, light gray is bacteria, black is antibiotic. Large dark grey zone = powerful antibiotic • Antibiotic resistance can occur from spontaneous mutations that have nothing to do with the actual antibiotic (rare). • More commonly it occurs from genes transferred from already resistant cells. • Bacteria have circular chromosomes.- Transposon copies and sends gene to plasmid, which then transfers gene to another cell.- Resistance develops quickly due to growth, variation, and selections. - prescribing antibiotics for viral infections, incomplete antibiotic therapy, and preventative antibiotics used in farming all contribute to antibiotic resistance...
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