Lecture 001 – Antibiotic Resistance • Antibiotic – an organic compound (containing carbon) that inhibits the growth of microbes (bacteria) through various methods. Can be either natural or synthetically made. • Bacteria are prokaryotes (do not have true nucleus), and are extremely small. They reproduce exponentially, and in a short time can multiply rapidly. They have circular chromosomes. • Methods from which antibiotics act: 1. Inhibiting cell wall formation 2. Inhibiting proper functioning of ribosomes (no proteins made) 3. Inhibiting DNA replication, thus unable to divide • When bacteria start becoming insensitive to certain antibiotics (growth continues), it is said that the bacteria has acquired resistance to such antibiotic. • Ways in which bacteria resist antibiotics: 1. Efflux pump: bacteria express gene for an efflux pump, and attached to the cell wall, the antibiotic is pumped out of the cell through the efflux pump. 2.
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