Lecture 19 The Social Consequences of the Industrial Revolution

Lecture 19 The Social Consequences of the Industrial Revolution

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Franz Schubert (1797-1828) Fantasie in F minor, Opus 103: ‘poignant melody and passionate drama’
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The Social Consequences of the Industrial Revolution The emergence of a class society
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The traditional social hierarchy Patrician/plebeian divide: Those who owned the land Those who worked it
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The emergence of class divisions Class: A relationship, not a thing
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‘…class happens when some men, as a result of common experiences (inherited or shared) feel and articulate the identity of their interests as between themselves, and as against other men whose interests are different from (and usually opposed to) theirs.’ EP Thompson, The Making of the English Working Class
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The 19 th c social order Upper, middle, and working classes
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The British aristocracy A working, capitalist elite Image make-over: a service elite Political power
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The middle class White-collar workers
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The European bourgeoisie Austria bureaucratic Hamburg commercial Britain industrialists
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Income and lifestyle: < £100: no servants £250: maid of all work £520: 3 servants
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Middle-class values
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Unformatted text preview: Respectability: Industry Sobriety Thrift Piety Domesticity Samuel Smiles, Self-Help (1859) Middle-class economic values Economic individualism Laissez-faire government Natural law Freedom of contract Free trade A conflicted middle class Moral values v. economic values Religious piety v. conspicuous consumption The working class 1790s-1840s: Dislocation and exploitation Working class consciousness Coincidence of the French and Industrial Revolutions Population growth: England and Wales 1781: 7.5 million 1801: 8.9 million 1841:15.9 million (greatest rate of increase: 1811-21) Urbanization and the growth of towns Class relations and tensions Labour unrest: General Ludd and Captain Swing Political radicalism: Peterloo Political goals Universal manhood suffrage Secret ballot Elimination of property qualifications for MPs Payment of MPs Equal electoral districts Annual elections Political movements Parliamentary reform, 1832 Chartism, 1838-48 Repeal of the Corn Laws, 1848...
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Lecture 19 The Social Consequences of the Industrial Revolution

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