Harry Hearder Notes

Harry Hearder Notes - Harry Hearder Italy: A Short History...

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Harry Hearder – Italy: A Short History - “Enough has been said in this history to show that Italy was more than the ‘geographical expression by which Metternich described her in 1847. ‘Italy’ had been a cultural expression rather longer than ‘Europe’ had been.” (164-165) - “He [Mazzini] was to be the first person to pursue, in a single movement, the independence of Italians from foreign rule, the political unity of the peninsula, and freedom for the individual citizen.” (165) - Revolutions of 1820-21 had the ambition of driving the Austrians out of the Italy. Revolutions that broke out in the three regions of Central Italy were suppressed by the Austrians. The leader of the revolution in Modena, Ciro Menotti, was killed by the Austrians, and would serve as a martyr for the Risorgimento movement: so much so, Giuseppe Garibaldi would name one of his sons Menotti. (166) - As a university student, Mazzini’s publications were in support of Romanticism as opposed to Classicism. “While still at school he had developed a keen awareness of a movement for Italian nationhood and political freedom.” Declared himself neither a follower of socialist of Christian thoughts. (167) - After being arrested for membership in the ‘Carbonari’, a secret revolutionary group founded in the Italian peninsula, he organized his views, and would found a groups to be called ‘La Giovine Italia’, or Young Italy, whose goals were to expel the foreigners from Italy and for the unification of an republican Italian state. Cells of this ‘Young Italy’ were to be found all over Italy. “As a propaganda machine the organization was brilliantly successful; as an insurrectionary body it was miserably unsuccessful.” (169) - After many failed insurrection attempts in the Italian peninsula, he was forced into exile. In a foreign country’s newspaper, “he [Mazzini] explained his nationalism was dependent on his belief in democracy; the people believed in affirming their national identity and giving it a political shape, and the voice of the people was the voice of God.” (170) - In contrast to the alleged ‘radicalism’ of Mazzini’s beliefs, and Young Italy, Vincenzo Gioberti, a Piedmontese Catholic priest, originated the idea of Neo-Guelphism, a belief that all states of Italy should retain their identities and rulers, however should all join together in a confederation with the Pope installed as a president. While not as extreme as Mazzini’s nationalist views, Neo-Guelphism gave Italian Catholics to be indoctrinated
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Harry Hearder Notes - Harry Hearder Italy: A Short History...

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