Lucy Riall Notes

Lucy Riall Notes - Lucy Riall The Italian Risorgimento...

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Lucy Riall – The Italian Risorgimento: State, society, and national unification. - “the Risorgimento is considered to be a defining moment in Italy’s history, the period when Italy becomes a ‘nation’ and enters the ‘modern’ world.” (1) - “various transformations in Italy after unification: collapse of the ancient regime and development of parliamentary system, the breakdown of traditional rural society and the birth of modern, urban life, the transition from a feudal to a capitalist economy and the replacement of local or regional identities by a single national culture” (1) - Risorgimento literally means in Italian “resurgence”, referring to a idealized past and the hopes of transforming the present to the glory days of the past. - After the Congress of Vienna (right after the Napoleonic Wars), Lombardy and the Venetian Republic were directly annexed into the Austrian empire, while the Grand Duchy of Tuscany and the duchies of Modena and Parma were ruled by the Austrian Habsburg family. The Pope was restored back to the Papal States, and the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies was given back to the Bourbon (French/Spanish royal family) Ferdinand I. Both the pope and Ferdinand I gave Austria permission to intervene in military matters, thus giving Austria virtual control over much of the Italian peninsula. (13) - Only Italian state independent of Austrian influence was the Kingdom of Sardinia (comprising of Sardinia, Piedmont, Savoy, and Liguria, and the Genoese Republic). (13) - “Particularly after 1852, when the moderate liberal Count Camillo Cavour became prime minister of Piedmont, parliament began successfully to assert its authority. A series of reforms liberalised the bureaucracy and judiciary and effectively limited the power of the monarch and the Church.” “Finally, he used his skills as a diplomatic negotiator to promote the interests and prestige of Piedmont within Europe.” (14) - 10 years after the 1848-49 revolutions, Piedmont won a war against Austria with French assistance. In 1859, Lombardy was taken from the Austrians, by early 1860, governments in Tuscany, Parma, Modena, and the Papal Legations were overthrown and replaced with pro-Piedmontese governments, Bourbon government overthrown with the march of Giuseppe Garibaldi. Venetia united with Italy in 1866. Papal States (excluding the area
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2009 for the course HISTORY 1401 taught by Professor Nathans during the Spring '09 term at UWO.

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Lucy Riall Notes - Lucy Riall The Italian Risorgimento...

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