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Unformatted text preview: 2007-11-29Learning as Human AdaptationClassical and Operant / Instrumental ConditioningStimulus-Stimulus associations and Response-Consequence contingenciesBehaviourismStress an observable behaviour and events and exclusion of cognitive factorsLittle emphasis on any limits to or distinctions between what can be learnedBiological Constraints and Cognitive Enhancements of LearningBiological Preparedness: Natural Selection Fine-Tunes LearningBiologically prewired to learn behaviours related to survivalBehaviour contrary to natural tendencies slowly learned, it at alloEx. Learned taste aversions (learning tastes of food gone bad)Classical ConditioningRats easily learn taste aversionLights and sounds cannot be associated with illnessoBut can be with painAnd vice versaBiological PreparednessAre Humans Also Biologically Prepared to Fear certain things?The objects of most phobias have evolutionary significanceoSnakes, spiders, dangerous placesFew phobias for harmful but evolutionarily irrelevant objectsoGuns, knives, etc.Classical conditioning experiments confirm distinctionBeyond BehaviourismThe S-O-R (Cognitive) Model of LearningoO organisms cognitive representation of worldoExpansion of more limited S (stimulus) and R (response) modeloAcquiring knowledge rather than simply changing behaviour by strengthening / weakening responsesTolman Knowledge vs. Simple Behaviour ChangeCognitive MapsoMazes metal representations of spatial layouts...
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- Spring '09