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Unformatted text preview: 2007-11-29Learning as Human Adaptation•Classical and Operant / Instrumental Conditioning•Stimulus-Stimulus associations and Response-Consequence contingenciesBehaviourism•Stress an observable behaviour and events and exclusion of cognitive factors•Little emphasis on any limits to or distinctions between what can be learnedBiological Constraints and Cognitive Enhancements of LearningBiological Preparedness: Natural Selection Fine-Tunes Learning•Biologically prewired to learn behaviours related to survival•Behaviour contrary to natural tendencies slowly learned, it at alloEx. Learned taste aversions (learning tastes of food gone bad)•Classical Conditioning•Rats easily learn taste aversion•Lights and sounds cannot be associated with illnessoBut can be with pain•And vice versa•Biological PreparednessAre Humans Also Biologically Prepared to Fear certain things?•The objects of most phobias have evolutionary significanceoSnakes, spiders, dangerous places•Few phobias for harmful but evolutionarily irrelevant objectsoGuns, knives, etc.•Classical conditioning experiments confirm distinctionBeyond Behaviourism•The S-O-R (Cognitive) Model of Learningo‘O’ organism’s cognitive representation of worldoExpansion of more limited ‘S’ (stimulus) and R (response) modeloAcquiring knowledge rather than simply changing behaviour by strengthening / weakening responsesTolman – Knowledge vs. Simple Behaviour Change•Cognitive MapsoMazes – metal representations of spatial layouts...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2009 for the course PSYCH 1000 taught by Professor Atkinson during the Spring '09 term at UWO.
- Spring '09