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Unformatted text preview: 2007-12-04A Final Word on Learning•Biological constraints and evidence of cognitive processesMemory•What is it? Why do we need it?oThe Cases of Henry M and Clive WearingEven though you experience something, it must be processed and turned into memory so that it can be recalled and so that you may learn from it•3 stages of memoryFormation of Memories•Three Essential Steps for All Types if MemoryoEncoding / Acquisitions: capturing and translating information into neural codeoStorage: Retained over timeoRetrieval: Pulled back out through recall or recognition•Separate but interacting componentsoSensory memoryoShort term / working memoryoLong term memorySensory Memory•Briefly holds sensory information•Iconic stores – visual information oLasts fractions of a secondoSperling’s Ingenious Experiment•Echoic stores – auditory informationoLasts about 2 secondsoPartial trace can last longer•Sensory registers are initial information processorsWorking (short-term) memory•Temporarily holds limited amount of informationoStores and processes information of which we are conscious•Why ‘working’ memoryo‘works on’ information encoding, rehearsal, elaborationoLoading dock, or work bench?Automatically storing or Active processing•How is information represented?oMental representations / memory codesVarious forms•Images (visual) sounds (phonological), meaning (semantic), physical action (motor)Form of memory code does not always correspond to form of original stimulusErrors are often phonetic – Critical Role•Confuse words or letters that sound alike•Ex. B or V; M or N; cat or cad•Capacity and DurationoMagical Number = 7+/- 2 (Miller, 1956)Recalling unrelated items given to youIf unprocessed, the information is lostoFive-nine meaningful itemsProvides 1 key to increasing memory•Increasing Short-term MemoryoChunkingCombining individual items into larger units of meaningo...
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- Spring '09