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Unformatted text preview: 2007-12-04A Final Word on LearningBiological constraints and evidence of cognitive processesMemoryWhat is it? Why do we need it?oThe Cases of Henry M and Clive WearingEven though you experience something, it must be processed and turned into memory so that it can be recalled and so that you may learn from it3 stages of memoryFormation of MemoriesThree Essential Steps for All Types if MemoryoEncoding / Acquisitions: capturing and translating information into neural codeoStorage: Retained over timeoRetrieval: Pulled back out through recall or recognitionSeparate but interacting componentsoSensory memoryoShort term / working memoryoLong term memorySensory MemoryBriefly holds sensory informationIconic stores visual information oLasts fractions of a secondoSperlings Ingenious ExperimentEchoic stores auditory informationoLasts about 2 secondsoPartial trace can last longerSensory registers are initial information processorsWorking (short-term) memoryTemporarily holds limited amount of informationoStores and processes information of which we are consciousWhy working memoryoworks on information encoding, rehearsal, elaborationoLoading dock, or work bench?Automatically storing or Active processingHow is information represented?oMental representations / memory codesVarious formsImages (visual) sounds (phonological), meaning (semantic), physical action (motor)Form of memory code does not always correspond to form of original stimulusErrors are often phonetic Critical RoleConfuse words or letters that sound alikeEx. B or V; M or N; cat or cadCapacity and DurationoMagical Number = 7+/- 2 (Miller, 1956)Recalling unrelated items given to youIf unprocessed, the information is lostoFive-nine meaningful itemsProvides 1 key to increasing memoryIncreasing Short-term MemoryoChunkingCombining individual items into larger units of meaningo...
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- Spring '09