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Chapter 10 - Motivation and Emotion

Chapter 10 - Motivation and Emotion - Chapter 10 Motivation...

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Chapter 10 – Motivation and Emotion ‘One can never consent to creep when one feels the impulse to soar.’ – Helen Keller Motivation : process that influences the direction, persistence, and vigour of goal-directed behaviour o Factors that move us toward our goals Perspectives on Motivation Instinct Theory and Motivation Instinct : (fixed action pattern) inherited characteristic, common to all members of a species, that automatically produces a particular response when the organism is exposed to a particular stimulus Homeostasis and Drive Theory Homeostasis : a state of internal physiological equilibrium that the body strives to maintain o Requires sensory mechanism, a response system, and a control centre o Like a thermostat with a set point Drive Theory : physiological disruptions to homeostasis produces drives (states of internal tension that motivate an organism to behave in ways that reduce this tension) o Reducing drives is the ultimate goal of motivated behaviour o ‘push’ factors Incentive and Expectancy Theories Incentives : environmental stimuli that ‘pull’ an organism toward a goal o Require an external stimuli Expectancy x Value Theory : goal-directed behaviour is jointly determined by two factors: o the strength of the person’s expectation that particular behaviours will lead to a goal o Incentive value: the value an individual places on that goal o Motivation = expectancy x incentive value Extrinsic Motivation : performing an activity to obtain an external reward or to avoid a punishment Intrinsic Motivation : performing an activity for its own sake o Enjoyable or stimulating Overstimulation Hypothesis: giving rewards for an intrinsically enjoyed activity may ‘over justify’ the activity and reduce intrinsic motivation Psychodynamic and Humanistic Theories Maslow (1954) o Deficiency needs: physical and social survival o Growth needs: developing our potential o Need Hierarchy : a progression of needs, deficiency at bottom, growth at top o Self - actualization : need to fulfill our potential, the ultimate human motive Hunger and Weight Regulation The Physiology of Hunger Metabolism: the body’s rate or energy (or caloric) utilization o Basal Metabolism (BMR): resting, continuous metabolic work of body cells (2/3 of energy) Satiety: no longer feel hungry Set point: body weight (or fat mass) is regulated at a physiological standard Signals that Start and Terminate a Meal
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o ‘hunger pangs’ do not depend on an empty stomach or a stomach at all o Glucose : a simple sugar that is in the body’s major source of fuel (especially brain) After a meal, large portion is stored in liver and fat cells where it is converted to other nutrients Drop-rise glucose pattern: liver converts glucose to nutrients depending on presence of glucose or nutrients o Stomach and intestinal dissention are ‘satiety signals’ some satiety signals respond to food content CCK (cholecystokinin)
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Chapter 10 - Motivation and Emotion - Chapter 10 Motivation...

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