Chapter 11 + 16

Chapter 11 + 16 - Chapter 11 Development Over the Life...

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Chapter 11 Development Over the Life Span: pgs 436-457 Major Issues and Methods: Critical period – an age range during which certain experiences must occur for development to proceed normally. Sensitive period – an optimal age range for certain experiences, but if those experiences occur at another time, normal development will still be possible. Five developmental functions with different shapes: o No change – an ability present at or before birth that remains relatively constant throughout the life span. o Continuous change (continuity) an ability not present, or very immature, at birth that develops gradually over months or years and then remains constant over age Ex/ certain types of intelligence o Stages (discontinuity) an ability to progress in stages, with relatively rapid shifts from a lower level of performance to a higher level Ex/ motor development o Inverted U-Shaped function – an ability that emerges some time after birth, peaks, and disappears with age Ex/ separation anxiety o U-Shaped function – an ability that is present early in life disappears temporarily, and re-emerges later Cross-sectional design – compares people of different ages at the same point in time. o They test each person once and compare how well the different age groups perform Only problem is that all these people grew up in different cohorts (age groups) – different historical periods To avoid this problem a longitudinal design tests the same cohort as it gets older – can test the same person at 10 months, 10 years, 20 Sequential design – combines the cross-sectional and longitudinal approaches They repeatedly test several age cohorts as they grow older and determine whether they follow a similar developmental pattern – most consuming and costly design Prenatal period – approx 266 days during which humans develop from a single-cell organism barely larger than a pinhead into a new born human Prenatal Development: Has 3 stages: Germinal stage – app. first 2 weeks of development, when one perm fertilizes a female egg (ovum) o Zygote – is a fertilized egg o Through repeated cell division the zygote becomes a mass of cells that attaches to the mother’s uterus about 10-14 days after conception Embryonic stage – goes from the end of the 2 nd week through the 8 th week after conception, and the cell mass now is called the embryo o Two placenta and umbilical cord develop at the start of this stage o The placenta, located on the uterine wall contains membranes that allow nutrients to pass from the mothers blood to the umbilical cord o The umbilical cord contains blood vessel that carry these nutrients and oxygen to the embryo, and waste products back from the embryo to the mother o Embryonic cells divide rapidly and become specialized o Organs and systems begin to develop, and at week 8 the heart is beating, the brain is forming, and facial features and eyes can be recognized o At the ninth week, the embryo is called a
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Chapter 11 + 16 - Chapter 11 Development Over the Life...

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