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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 9: Thought, Language, and Intelligence pgs: 358-380 Intelligence: Intelligence a concept, or construct, refers to the ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the environment Intelligence in Historical Perspective: Galton grew out of a scientific desire to extend Darwins theory of evolution to the inheritance of mental abilities Binet concerned with finding a means to identify mental defective children who would be unable to profit from normal educational experiences. Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability Believed intelligence ran in families and that people inherited mental constitutions that made them more fit for thinking Alfred Binets Mental Tests: Developed an intelligence test for Frances Ministry of Public Education He was interested in solving a practical problem To develop this test he had two assumptions; that mental abilities develop with age, and that the rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and is fairly constant over time To develop a measure for mental skills he asked teacher what problems children of all grades could solve developed a standardized interview in which an adult asked a child questions appropriate for their age The result of the testing was a score called mental age the childs placement in a grade would be determined by their mental age Mental age works pretty well for children, but not for adults People IQs have become higher since 1910 due to better nutrition, and enriching environments The Standard-Binet and Wechsler Scales: A translation of Binets test into English for American testing Wechsler scales are its competitor that tested verbal and non-verbal abilities and measured a range of intellectual skills (verbal tests and performance tests) Group Tests of Aptitude and Achievement: Group tests of intelligence can be used to obtain IQ scores from groups of people at the same time and are used y many schools Achievement tests find out how much people have learned in school Aptitude tests go beyond prior learning, they measure the applicants potential for future learning and performance. Scientific Standards for Psychological Tests: Psychological test a method for measuring individual differences related to some psychological concept, or construct, based on a sample of relevant behaviour in a scientifically and controlled situation. Three key measurement concepts: reliability, validity, and standardization Reliability: Reliability consistency of measurement, and consistency can take several forms Test-retest reliability administering the measure to the same group of participants on two separate occasions and correlating the two sets of scores Internal consistency consistency of measurement within the test itself Interjudge reliability consistency when different people score the same test...
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2009 for the course PSYCH 1000 taught by Professor Atkinson during the Spring '09 term at UWO.
- Spring '09