35_Lectures_2008_class

35_Lectures_2008_class - Chapter 35 Plant Structure,...

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Chapter 35 Plant Structure, Growth, and Development 35.1 and 35.2
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Overview: No two Plants Are Alike To some people, the fanwort is an intrusive weed, but to others it is an attractive aquarium plant This plant exhibits developmental plasticity , the ability to alter itself in response to its environment
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In addition to plasticity, plant species have by natural selection accumulated characteristics of morphology that vary little within the species external form - the way they look Greek morphē - ‘form’ Overview: No two Plants Are Alike
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Concept 35.1: The plant body has a hierarchy of organs, tissues, and cells Plants, like multicellular animals, have organs composed of different tissues , which are in turn are composed of cells A tissue is a group of cells with a common function e.g. epidermis An Organ consists of several types of tissues that together carry out particular functions. e.g Stems, roots, etc
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Shoot system Root system Reproductive shoot (flower) Terminal bud Node Internode Blade Vegetable shoot Terminal bud Petiole Axillary bud Stem Leaf Taproot Lateral roots Basic morphology of vascular plants reflects their evolution as organisms that draw nutrients from below-ground and above-ground are organized into a root system and a shoot system The Three Basic Plant Organs: Roots, Stems, and Leaves
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Roots Functions of roots: 1. Anchoring the plant 2. Absorbing minerals and water 3. Often storing organic nutrients In most plants, absorption of water and minerals occurs near the root tips, where vast numbers of tiny root hairs increase the surface area Taproot - in most eudicots this is the main root that develops from the embryonic root - stores the organic nutrients needed for flowers and fruit production
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Roots - continued A root hair is an extension of a root epidermal cell (protective cell on a plant surface). Root hairs are not to be confused with lateral roots, which are multicellular organs. increases surface area to volume ratio of the root and aids in water and nutrient acquisition
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Prop roots. help in supporting the tall, top heavy Corn plants Roots arising from the stem are said to be adventitious (from the Latin adventicius , extraneous), a term describing any plant part that grows in an unusual location. Many plants have modified roots
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Storage roots. The beet stores food and water in the roots and we eat them ;) Many plants have modified roots
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“Strangling” aerial roots . Many plants have modified roots this Cambodian strangler Fig tree germinates in the top of a host tree and sends down aerial roots. Eventually the Fig will kill the host
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Buttress roots. Many plants have modified roots Buttress roots are large roots on all sides of a tall or shallowly rooted tree.
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35_Lectures_2008_class - Chapter 35 Plant Structure,...

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