36_Lectures_2008_Class

36_Lectures_2008_Class - Chapter 36 Resource Acquisition...

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Chapter 36 Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants
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Outline 36.1: Land plants acquire resources both above and below ground - partial 36.2: Transport occurs by short-distance diffusion or active transport and by long-distance bulk flow 36.3: Water and minerals are transported from roots to shoots - most 36.4: Stomata help regulate the rate of transpiration - most Concept 36.5: Sugars are transported from leaves and other sources to sites of use or storage
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Overview: Pathways for Survival For vascular plants, the evolutionary journey onto land involved differentiation into roots and shoots acquired new niches but also left behind water immersion The success of plants depends on their ability to gather and conserve resources from their environment - use the vasculature Diffusion, active transport, and bulk flow work together to transfer water, minerals, and sugars
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Concept 36.1: Land plants acquire resources both above and below ground The algal ancestors of land plants absorbed water, minerals, and CO 2 directly from the surrounding water The evolution of xylem and phloem in land plants made possible the long-distance transport of water, minerals, and products of photosynthesis Adaptations in each species represent compromises between enhancing photosynthesis and minimizing water loss
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Minerals H 2 O H 2 O CO 2 O 2 Sugar Light CO 2 O 2 A variety of physical processes are involved in the different types of transport Roots absorb water and minerals water and minerals are transported up to the shoots as xylem sap Transpiration , the loss of water from the leaves, creates the (-) force that pulls the sap up Sugars are photosynthetically produced up here Roots exchange O and
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36.2: Transport occurs by short-distance diffusion or active transport and by long-distance bulk flow Transport in vascular plants occurs on three scales: 1. Transport of water and solutes by individual cells, such as root hairs 2. Short-distance transport of substances from cell to cell at the levels of tissues and organs 3. Long-distance transport within xylem and phloem at the level of the whole plant
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Selective Permeability of Membranes: A Review The selective permeability of the plasma membrane controls movement of solutes into and out of the cell
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Membrane: Function The major function of the cytoplasmic membrane is to act as a permeability barrier, preventing leakage of cytoplasmic metabolites into the environment. Selective permeability also prevents the diffusion of most solutes. To accumulate nutrients against the concentration gradient, specific transport mechanisms are employed. The membrane also functions as an anchor for membrane proteins involved in transport, bioenergetics, and chemotaxis and as a site for energy conservation in the cell.
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Diffusion and active transport of solutes The selective permeability of the plasma membrane controls movement of solutes into and out of the cell Specific transport proteins enable plant cells to
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36_Lectures_2008_Class - Chapter 36 Resource Acquisition...

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