bicd130_06_lecture5r

bicd130_06_lecture5r - BICD 130 Embryos, Genes, and...

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Unformatted text preview: BICD 130 Embryos, Genes, and Development Frog gastrulation transforms the blastula into a tadpole Formation of the gut tube Establishment of the three germ layers Lengthening along A/P body axis The point of sperm entry defines the D/V axis of the frog embryo Fate maps of the Xenopus (frog) blastula Gastrulation begins at the future dorsal side of the Xenopus embryo Inward movement of the bottle cells forms a blastopore and starts gastrulation in the frog The dorsal blastopore lip Cell movements in early frog gastrulation Cell movements in early frog gastrulation Formation of the threelayered body organization of the frog embryo Mid-gastrulation in the frog: Archenteron formation, displacement of the blastocoel, and epiboly of ectodermal cells Gastrulation utilizes a variety of cell movements epiboly: intercalation of multiple cell layers into one layer; also cell division Intercalation and cell division drive epiboly of frog embryo ectodermal cells phosphorylated histone H3 Late gastrulation in the frog: Disappearance of the blastocoel and establishment of the three-layered body plan Late gastrulation in the frog: Epiboly of the ectoderm covers the vegetal endoderm Comparison of the blastula stage in various embryos Comparative fate maps of different vertebrate embryos at the start of gastrulation Early gastrulation in the chick: Migration of epiblast cells and formation of the primitive streak Migration of epiblast cells through the primitive groove establishes the threelayered body organization of the chick embryo Midgastrulation in the chick: Elongation and regression of the primitive streak and formation of the most anterior structures Late gastrulation in the chick: Somite formation and start of neurulation in the anterior Implanted human embryo at the start of gastrulation Derivation of tissues in the human embryo Cell movements during human gastrulation ...
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