Monosaccharides•one sugar unit•aldehydesorketoneswith two or more hydroxyl groups•carbons onto which these are attached are chiralcenters•D-glucose (dextrose) most common•names end in ‘ose’Oligosaccharides•short chains of sugars joined with glycosidic bonds•disaccharides are most abundant•sucrose is common = D-glucose + D-fructose•names end in ‘ose’Carbohydrate Classes2MCDB310 –Chapter 7: Carbohydrates
Polysaccharides•usually >20 monosaccharides linked together (up to 1000s)•sugar chains can be linear orbranched•starch and cellulose: glucose polymers that differ greatly in structureand functionCarbohydrate Classes3MCDB310 –Chapter 7: Carbohydrates
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•backbones are unbranched carbon chains with single bonds•usually contain multiple chiralcarbon atoms•can be open-chain or cyclic•open forms have a carbonyl group–aldehyde aldose–ketoneketose•monosaccharide names: Type of carbonyl group and number of carbon atomsMonosaccharides4MCDB310 –Chapter 7: Carbohydrates