Chapter10Stu - Chapter 10 Lipids Lipids Fall Into 3 General...

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Chapter 10 Lipids
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Lipids Fall Into 3 General Groupings Storage Lipids - Contains Fatty acids and oils - Built to make them stable and easy to disassemble Structural Lipids - Contains Phospholipids and sterols - Built to provide stability and mobility for membrane components Others - Contains cofactors, electron carriers, pigments, hydrophobic anchors, hormones, intracellular messengers - Built to provide special functions
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Structural Groups Backbones - Sphingosine - Glycerol Fatty Acids - Hydrocarbons ( R-Groups) Complex rings - Cholesterol and derivatives - Cofactors - Signaling molecules -V
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STORAGE LIPIDS Fatty acid Structure Hydrocarbon Derivatives Carboxylic acids with hydrocarbon chains ~ 4-36 carbons May be - Fully or partly saturated - Branched or unbranched May contain - Three -carbon rings, and - R-groups: methyl, hydroxyl Biological fatty acids do not usually Usually are separated by a have conjugated double bonds methylene -CH = CH-CH = CH- -CH=CH- CH 2 -CH=CH-
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STORAGE LIPIDS Nomenclature Based on chain length:double bond character Palmitic acid 16:0 Oleic acid 18:1 Position of double bond is identified: 20 carbon chain with 2 double bonds: 20:2( Δ 9,12 ) Δ 9 Monounsaturated Δ 12 and Δ 15 Polyunsaturated The most common fatty acids: 12-24 carbon unbranched chains - Even number of carbons - Acetate condensation *Acetate has two carbons = even number
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STORAGE LIPIDS Physical Properties Chain is non-polar, so … - Fatty acids are generally poorly water-soluble - Slight solubility in water is due to carboxyl groups At room temperature - Saturated fatty acids are waxy - Unsaturated fatty acids are oily
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Desaturated chains contain bends Saturated chains are linear
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Hydrophobic Nonpolar Nearly insoluble in water Glycerol + 3 fatty acids Ester bonds Mixed Triacylglycerols Two or more different fatty acids Simple Triacylglycerols Only one type of fatty acid Serve as storage forms of metabolic fuel Cleaved by Lipases: hydrolyze ester linkages Triacylglycerols: Fatty Acid Esters of Glycerol
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1. Hydrophobic No need for hydration (i.e. solvation layer) 2. Carbon atoms are highly reduced - Yield more energy than carbohydrates through oxidation Example: 15 mg of triacylglycerols = ~1,350 mg of glycogen Advantages of using triacylglycerols as fuels
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Esters of Long chain (14-36 carbon) saturated/unsaturated fatty acids + Long chain (16-30 carbon) alcohols Melting points higher than triacylglycerols - Waterproofers for feathers - Prevent evaporation from holly, rhododendron, poison ivy - Polishes and lotions - Derived from palm, lanolin (sheep’s wool), beeswax Waxes
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Three general classes of membrane lipids: Organized by Backbones Glycerophospholipids Two fatty acids joined to glycerol Spingolipids One fatty acid + one fatty amine (sphingosine ) Sterols Rigid core of four fused hydrocarbon rings Above three are membrane lipid classes Phospholipids Some glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids with a polar head group + fatty acid Glycolipids Some sphingolipids with a simple sugar instead of phosphate *There are many variations on these themes
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2009 for the course MCDB 310 taught by Professor Walter during the Spring '09 term at University of Michigan.

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Chapter10Stu - Chapter 10 Lipids Lipids Fall Into 3 General...

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