Chapter 15 Notes - Carbohydrate Metabolism II Glycogen...

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Carbohydrate Metabolism II Glycogen Metabolism and Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism
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Regulation of Metabolism 2 Some defining features of living creatures: Metabolism Homeostasis Ability to keep internal milieu constant despite changes in the environment Sensing Growth and development Source: Campbell/Reece, Biology, 6 th edition MCDB310 – Chapter 15: Carbohydrate Metabolism II
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Regulation of Metabolism 3 Autoregulation: Cell maintains internal homeostasis Central regulation: Metabolism responds to requirements of the organism Regulating the metabolic flow through pathways Distributing common metabolites between alternative pathways MCDB310 – Chapter 15: Carbohydrate Metabolism II
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Principles of Metabolic Regulation 4 Rate of a metabolic reaction can be altered by changing: The availability of the substrate The specific activity of the enzyme (k cat , K M ) The concentration of the enzyme, [E] T S P enzyme E 0 V MCDB310 – Chapter 15: Carbohydrate Metabolism II
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Principles of Metabolic Regulation 5 Changing the specific activity of the enzyme Binding of inhibitor or activator (allosteric, non-allosteric) Covalent modification (e.g. phosphorylation) Changing the concentration of the enzyme, [E] T Changing the location of enzyme Changing the steady-state level of enzyme (translation, protein degradation) Changing the steady-state level of the mRNA encoding the enzyme (transcription, mRNA degradation) MCDB310 – Chapter 15: Carbohydrate Metabolism II
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Principles of Metabolic Regulation 6 MCDB310 – Chapter 15: Carbohydrate Metabolism II
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Steady State and Metabolic Pathways 7 MCDB310 – Chapter 15: Carbohydrate Metabolism II
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Equilibrium from a Kinetic Point of View 8 A B k 1 k -1 ] A [ 1 B A k v ] B [ 1 A B k v t [A] v A B [B] v B A Net rate , v t 0 100 300 0 0 300 t 1 80 240 20 20 220 t 2 50 150 50 50 100 t 25 75 75 75 0 k 1 = 3 s -1 k -1 = 1 s -1 Condition for equilibrium: v A B = v B A k 1 ·[A] eq = k -1 ·[B] eq eq 1 1 [A] [B] K k k MCDB310 – Chapter 15: Carbohydrate Metabolism II
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Equilibrium from a Kinetic Point of View 9 A B 75 mM/s 75 mM 25 s 3 ] A [ 1 eq 1 B A k v 1 1 1 1 3 s 1 s 3 25 75 [A] [B] K k k 75 mM/s s 1 ] B [ 1 1 A B k v MCDB310 – Chapter 15: Carbohydrate Metabolism II
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Steady State 10 A B C D E F G 50 50 1050 50 50 100 50 1000 Concentrations of all intermediates are constant Rationale: For each intermediate, v feeding = v depletion There is a net flow A G through the system Fast, reversible steps such as C D are close to equilibrium Slow, reversible steps such as E F are not in equilibrium MCDB310 – Chapter 15: Carbohydrate Metabolism II
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Concentrations of Intermediates in Steady State 11 A B C D E F G 50 50 1050 50 50 100 50 1000 Net flow through each step is the same, but the concentration of
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2009 for the course MCDB 310 taught by Professor Walter during the Spring '09 term at University of Michigan.

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Chapter 15 Notes - Carbohydrate Metabolism II Glycogen...

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