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Drawing Lewis Structures - This will sometimes lead to...

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Drawing Lewis Structures For molecules and polyatomic ions composed of nonmetals 1. Write the skeletal structure (the arrangement of atoms within the molecule): Central atom = the atom with the lowest electronegativity (usually). Hydrogen is always a terminal atom (on the end). 2. Count the total number of valence electrons: Group number for each element = # valence electrons. Add electrons for negatively charged ions. Subtract electrons for positively charged ions. 3. Draw a bond between the central atom and each surrounding atom. Single bond = 1 pair of electrons 4. Place lone pairs of electrons about each terminal atom to complete their octets. Octet = 4 electrons pairs around an atom (eight electrons) Hydrogen can only have 2 electrons. 5. If there are more electrons left, place them as lone pairs on the central atom.
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Unformatted text preview: This will sometimes lead to an "expanded octet" around the central atom. Expanded octet = five or six electron pairs around an atom. Only central atoms from the third period and above can have expanded octets. 6. If the central atom has an incomplete octet, use the electrons from surrounding atoms to make double or triple bonds. Do not add electrons. "Borrow" them from surrounding atoms. Double bond = 2 pairs of electrons Triple bond = 3 pairs of electrons Only C, N, O, P, and S form multiple bonds. F and Cl do not form multiple bonds. 7. Sometimes you just can't complete the octet for a central atom. If there is an odd number of electrons, give the central atom 7 electrons instead of 8. Boron and Beryllium just don't have enough electrons to go around and often have incomplete octets....
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