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2_-_Telescopes_and_Spectrographs - 2 Telescopes and...

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2 – Telescopes and Spectrographs G. Galileo Galileo ~1600 W. Huggins 1880 2 The Plan What can we measure, and how do we do it? • Telescopes Critical characteristics for telescopes – Aperture (to capture the faintest objects) – Resolution (resolve the finest details) How to make telescopes better – Go into space (and pay the big $’s) – Stay on the ground (and be clever!) • Spectrographs 3 “Light” is just about it! We want to measure: – Intensity, (luminosity & flux) – Wavelength, (color) – Polarization (little used and difficult to interrupt) – Spectra (atoms, ions, molecules, dust, pressure, temperature, composition) – Take images (from the finest details to source counts) Rocks, visitations, cosmic rays, aneutrinos. 4 The Electromagnetic Spectrum Wavelength range 1 to 10 14 Optical Astronomy
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5 THE GREAT OBSERVERATORIES 6 Radio Telescopes 7 A collision on the galactic level No single wavelength shows the whole picture. 8 Aperture • Our object presents us with a stream of photons, n = # of photons / sec area.
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