30_-_Big_Bang

30_-_Big_Bang - 30 The Big Bang Time Line Time = 13Gyr...

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30 - The Big Bang Time Line 2 Time = 13Gyr Temperature= 2.7K • The Earth is 4.6Byr old. • The universal expansion has been underway for ~13 Byr. • Biological units are able to change the climate, and send space probes to nearby planets. • Travel to the nearest stars is way beyond their capability. • Long term survival is still in question. 3 Time = 10 -46 s Temp. ~10 33 K • The end of the Planck era. • Before this time the quantum nature of gravity should be important, but it is unknown how. Forces: Theory Of Everything (TOE) 4 Time = 10 -36 s Temp. = 10 28 K • Grand Unification Theory (GUT) • Origin of matter and antimatter • Magnetic monopoles • Inflation Forces: Grand Unified Theory (GUT) & Gravity
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5 6 G U T TOE 7 Time =10 -35 sec Temp. = 10 27 K The universe goes from 10 -50 m to ~1m in ~10 -35 sec corresponding to a ‘speed’ of 1 m/10 -35 sec ~ 10 35 m/sec! • Clearly this isn’t my father’s physics. •We are living in a small part of the Universe, and our little spot was •This rapid expansion “solves” the flatness and horizon problems. •However, we have lost contact with the rest of the Universe. 8 Time = 10 -12 sec Temp. 10 15 K • The Electromagnetic force becomes indistinguishable from the Weak Force. • They are “unified.” • The surviving forces are the Electroweak and Gravity. Forces: Electroweak, Strong and Gravity
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Time = 10 -8 sec Temp. = 10 14 K • The Electromagnetic and Weak forces are separated. • The four forces we now recognize are in place for the rest of time. Or are there more forces to come? 10 Time = 1s Temp. = 10 10 K • Most of the p and n are gone • Only a small fraction (10 -10 ) of the protons survive. Why is there a difference in the number of p and p? • e - + e + 2 γ • n photons ~ 10 9 (n p + n n ) • n n ~ 1/6 n p 11 Time = 14 s Temp. =3x10 9 K • e - + e + 2 γ • The electrons are now mostly gone. • 17% n and 83% p (Things are moving so
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30_-_Big_Bang - 30 The Big Bang Time Line Time = 13Gyr...

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