8531211 - Affective Style and Affective Disorders:...

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Unformatted text preview: Affective Style and Affective Disorders: Perspectives from Affective Neuroscience RichardJ. Davidson U niversity of W isconsin M adison, U SA Individual diffe rences in emotional reactivity or affe ctive style can be fruitfully decomposed into more elementary c onstituents. Several separable features of affe ctive style are identi ed such as the thr eshol d for reactivity, the peak ampl itude of response, the rise time to peak and the rec overy time . The latte r tw o characteristics constitute com ponents of affec tive chronome - try . The circuitry that underlies tw o fundamental form s of motivation and emotion approach and w ithdraw al-relate d processes is described. Data on individual differences in func tional activity in certain components of these circuits are next review ed, w ith an emphasis on the nomologic al netw ork of associations surrounding individual diffe rences in asymme tric prefrontal activati on. The relevanc e of such diffe renc es for understanding the nature of the affe ctive dysfunction in affe ctive disorders is then considered. The article ends by considering w hat the prefrontal cortex ``does in certain components of affe ctive style and highlights some of the important ques- tions for future research. I. INTRODUCTION Among the most striking feature s of human emotion is the variability that is appare nt across individuals in the quality and inte nsity of disposition al mood and emotional reactions to similar inc entive s and challe nge s. The broad range s of diffe rences in these varie d affective phe nomena has been COGNITION AND EMOTION, 1998, 12 (3), 307 330 Requests for reprints should be sent to Richard J. Davidson, Laboratory for Affective Neuroscience, Department of Psychology, University of Wisconsin Madison, 1202 West Johnson Street, Madison, WI 53706, USA; e-mail: davidson@macc.wisc.edu. This research was supported by NIMH grants MH43454, MH40747, Research Scientist Award K05-MH00875, and P50-MH52354 to the Wisconsin Center for Affective Science (R.J. Davidson, Director), by a NARSAD Established Investigator Award, and by a grant from the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation. I thank the many individuals in my laboratories who have contributed importantly to this research over the years, including Andy Tomarken, Steve Sutton, Wil Irwin, Heather Abercrombie, Jeff Henriques, Chris Larson, Stacey Schaefer, Terry Ward, Darren Dottl, Isa Dolski, as well as the many collaborators outside my lab too numerous to name. 1998 Psychology Press Ltd referred to as ``affective style (Davidson, 1992 ). Differences am ong people in affectiv e style appe ar to be associate d w ith temperam ent (Kagan, Reznic k & Snidm an, 1988), personality (Gross, Sutton, & Kete- laar, in press) and vulne rability to psyc hopathology (Meehl, 1975). More- ov er, such diffe rences are not a unique hum an attribute , but appe ar to be present in a num ber of diffe rent species (e.g. Davidson, Kalin, & Shelton,present in a num ber of diffe rent species (e....
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2009 for the course PSYCHOLOGY 830 taught by Professor 346 during the Spring '09 term at Rutgers.

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8531211 - Affective Style and Affective Disorders:...

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