neurophysiology _2

neurophysiology _2 - Chapter 11: Neurophysiology...

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Chapter 11: Neurophysiology Objectives: ANATOMY/NAMING Describe the two major divisions of the nervous system and their characteristics. Identify the structures/functions of a typical neuron . Describe the location and function of neuroglia . ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY Explain how resting potential is created and maintained. Describe the events in the generation and propagation of an action potential . NEURAL COMMUNICATION Define the structure/function of a synapse synapse . List the major types of neurotransmitters neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Explain the processing of information in neural tissue.
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Electrical Properties of Neurons Neurons (and some other cells like muscle cells) exhibit the ability to generate and propagate electrical signals Several properties of neurons give them this ability: ionic makeup of the intracellular and extracellular fluids certain aspects of the neuron’s cell membrane, particularly the presence of several transmembrane proteins * the concepts we are going to discuss on this topic are somewhat abstract and can be difficult to work through in your head. SPEND TIME READING THE TEXT! Also, your Interactive Physiology CD has good animations.
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Electrical Properties of Neurons Characteristics of Importance 1. Specific arrangement of ions ions on the inside and outside of the cell Na+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Cl - Cl - More Na+ outside More Cl - outside More K+ inside Various anions and proteins (neg. charged) inside P- Cl - Cl - Cytosol (intracellular fluid) Extracellular fluid
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Electrical Properties of Neurons Characteristics of Importance Na+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Cl - Cl - This arrangement creates a charge difference between the inside and outside surfaces of the membrane inside surface is more negative than outside surface the membrane is said to be POLARIZED POLARIZED Can measure this charge difference (in VOLTS) P- K+ Cl - Cl - -70mV The measured charge difference across the membrane is called the MEMBRANE POTENTIAL MEMBRANE POTENTIAL
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Electrical Properties of Neurons Characteristics of Importance Na+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Cl - Cl - This arrangement also dictates that there is a force force acting on the ions (driving them to move somehow). This force is called an ELECTROCHEMICAL ELECTROCHEMICAL GRADIENT GRADIENT Concentration gradient particles want to move from high to low conc. Electrical gradient opposite charges attract, like charge repel P- K+ Cl - Cl -
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Electrical Properties of Neurons Characteristics of Importance Na+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ K+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Na+ Cl - Cl - This arrangement also dictates that there is a force force acting on the ions (driving them to move somehow).
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This note was uploaded on 04/05/2009 for the course BIOL 252 taught by Professor Johnson during the Spring '07 term at UNC.

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neurophysiology _2 - Chapter 11: Neurophysiology...

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