Lecture 8a Student

Lecture 8a Student - Announcements Will be posted later...

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Announcements Will be posted later today Quiz #3 due 2/6 11:59PM Problem set #2 due 2/10 11:59PM 6-1
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Mutations are the source of new alleles Multiple alleles arise spontaneously in nature due to chance alterations in genetic material Mutation rate varies from 1 in 10,000 to 1 in 1,000,000 per gamete per generation. Allele frequency is the percentage of the total number of gene copies represented by one allele. Wild-type – allele whose frequency is more than 1% Mutant allele – allele whose frequency is less than 1% Monomorphic – gene with only one wild- type allele
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One gene may contribute to several visible characteristics Pleiotropy – single gene determines more than one distinct and seemingly unrelated characteristics Some alleles may cause lethality. Type of pleiotropy where alleles produce a visible phenotype and affect viability Alleles that affect viability often produce deviations from a 1:2:1 genotypic and 3:1 phenotypic ratio predicted by Mendel’s Laws.
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Fig. 3.9 A-   A y A    aa  Agouti    Yellow     Black  Pleiotropy: inheritance of coat color
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Fig. 3.9 Pleiotropy: inheritance of coat color Agouti x Yellow yields 1:1 agouti:yellow Yellow must be A Y A A Y is dominant to A Ratio is 2:1!!
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Fig. 3.9 Yellow x Yellow mice do not breed true. A Y is a recessive lethal. A Y A Y die in utero and do not show up as progeny Ratio of Yellow is 2:1!! Pleiotropy: inheritance of coat color
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Pleiotropic effects of the mouse lethal yellow(Ay) mutation explained by deletion of a maternally expressed gene… Duhl et al. 1994. Development 120:1695 A y mutation is caused by a 120 kb deletion of RNA-binding protein Merc/Raly M aternally e xpressed hnR NP C -related gene, renamed Raly Lies proximal to the agouti coat color gene A y A y
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