Lecture 14 Chromosomal Rearrangements Slides

Lecture 14 Chromosomal Rearrangements Slides - Did...

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Did Increased Gene Duplication Set the Stage  for Human Evolution? Eichler et al analyzed  duplication content of 4  primate genomes Burst of duplications in  genome of the common  African great apes betw 8  13.6 million bases duplicated  in human genome are not  duplicated in other primates Detected by the whole- genome shotgun sequence  detection (WSSD) method Marques-Bonet et al. 2009. Nature 457:877
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of DNA shaped great ape species Marques-Bonet et al. 2009. Nature 457:877
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Duplications add material to the genome. Fig. 14.11 a,b
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Duplications add material to the genome. Fig. 14.11 a,b
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Duplication loops form when chromosomes pair  in duplication heterozygotes. In prophase I, the duplication loop can assume different  configurations that maximize the pairing of related regions. Fig. 14.11 c
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Duplications can affect phenotype. Novel phenotypes More gene copies Genes next to duplication  displaced to new environment  altering expression Fig. 14.12
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Unequal crossing over between duplications  increases or decreases gene copy number. Fig. 14.13
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Summary of duplication and  deletion affect on phenotype Alter number of genes on a chromosome and may  affect phenotype of heterozygote Heterozygosity creates one or three gene copies and  creates imbalance in gene product altering phenotypes  (some lethal). Genes may be placed in new location that modifies its  expression. Genetic imbalances can be additive Deletions and duplications drive evolution by  generating families of tandemly repeated genes.
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Inversions reorganize the DNA  sequence of a chromosome. Produced by half 
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Lecture 14 Chromosomal Rearrangements Slides - Did...

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