Lecture 20 Genetic Code

Lecture 20 Genetic Code - The Genetic Code Vinci Code The...

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The Genetic Code The Da Vinci Code Dr. Greg Matera 2 Mar 2009
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Molecular Biology operates at an  unfamiliar scale:
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The Central Dogma: Genetic information flows from Fig. 8.2 DNA RNA Protein
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DNA is the heritable material 1927 - Genetic Damage is Heritable Muller proved that X-rays cause mutations that pass from one generation to the next. Q: Which part of the cell was responsible for this heritability? 1944 - DNA transfer confers virulence Avery et al. showed DNA is responsible for the transformation of Streptococcus from an avirulent phenotype to a virulent phenotype
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The cellular machinery is largely made up of proteins . Proteins are made up of chains or sequences of amino acids . The sequence of these amino acids is literally encoded in the cell's DNA. The DNA is transcribed into RNA, which is then translated into protein. When one gene is mutated, one protein (e.g. an enzyme) is usually affected (disabled). Genes specify the information  needed to make proteins What is the evidence?
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1940s – identified Neurospora mutants that disrupted synthesis of arginine, an amino acid required for growth Auxotroph needs some type of supplement to grow
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Lecture 20 Genetic Code - The Genetic Code Vinci Code The...

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