BIO Lecture Outline 6 - ANT 100Y Outline for Lecture#6 What...

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ANT 100Y Outline for Lecture #6 What We’ll Cover Today I. Origins of modern humans. II. Race concepts: do they apply to humans? III. Forensic anthropology I. Origins of Modern Humans 2 models used to explain origin and spread of anatomically modern human beings: (1) Replacement or Out of African models & (2) Multi-regional model Out of Africa Model ~ 2.0 MYA, H. erectus evolved in Africa, dispersed into Europe and Asia. ~ 160 KYA, early H. sapiens evolved in Africa. ~ 100 KYA, H. sapiens migrated to and displaced contemporaneous hominins ( H. erectus, H. heidelbergensis , and H. neanderthalensis ) in Africa, Europe, and Asia. OOA Model 3 predictions: one wave of human dispersal and replacement out of Africa, modern humans descendants of African H. sapiens , & H. neanderthalensis evolutionary deadend. Anatomical traits associated with modern humans evolved approximately 200 KYA. Problems with OOA Model (1) too simplistic - 'The garden of Eden' epithet (one place for cradle of humanity). (2) Anatomical evidence suggests general continuity (Tabun and Skhul). Multiregional Model of Human Origins H. erectus evolved in Africa, migrated to Europe and Asia. H. sapiens evolved about 160 KYA in Africa and then 100 KYA dispersed into Europe and Asia. In each region, gene flow spread H. sapiens traits among local populations (i.e. interbreeding). H. sapiens did not replace or displace other hominins. H. neanderthalensis not evolutionary deadend because contributed to gene pool of European H. sapiens . Problems with Multiregional Model Africa: high diversity of human genetic material, suggesting longer period of human history. Genetic studies regularly point to genetic origin for our species between 100-200 KYA. Many "racial" features in human skeleton developed over last 30 KYA rather than million-year time span. No definite representatives of H. erectus have yet been discovered in Europe. What do Genetics Really Say? Earlier studies based only on mtDNA and Y-chromosome DNA. Multiple DNA sources: Little support for OOA or multiregional hypotheses. Genetic data support unique model: 2 population expansions of H. sapiens out of Africa, and then one dispersal from Asia back to Africa!
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