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chapter12 - Respiratory System Responsibility 1 Supply...

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Respiratory System Responsibility 1. Supply blood + tissues w/ O 2 2. Remove CO 2 Internal Respiration = w/in body Metabolic processing occurring in mitochondria Molecular O 2 is used by tissue cells CO 2 produced External Respiration = move air + gas in/out of lungs Exchange O 2 + CO 2 btwn external environment & body cells Breathing = air moved btwn atmosphere & lungs(alveoli) Gas exchanged btwn lungs & blood Step #1 = Getting O 2 into Body 1. Pulmonary Ventilation = O 2 from atmosphere into lungs(alveoli) 2. Pulmonary Diffusion = O 2 from alveoli into pulmonary caps 3. Blood/Gas Transport = O 2 from lungs to tissues 4. Blood/Gas Exchange = O 2 from blood into tissues Step #2 = CO 2 out of Body (Reverse Order) 1. Blood/Gas Exchange = CO 2 from tissues to blood 2. Blood/Gas Transport = CO 2 from tissues to lungs 3. Pulmonary Diffusion = CO 2 from pulmonary caps to alveoli 4. Pulmonary Ventilation = CO 2 from alveoli to atmosphere The Respiratory System carries out Non- Respiratory Functions Route for water loss + heat elimination Enhance venous return Maintain normal acid-base balance Enables vocalizations Foreign defense Part of sense of smell Parts of Respiratory System 1. Air Passages 2. Lungs 3. Breathing (Thoracic Muscles) Airways Conduct Air between the Atmosphere and Alveoli 1. Nasal Passages + mouth lead to Pharynx 2. Pharynx (throat) branches into 2 tubes 1 becomes esophagus Other goes through larynx to trachea 3. Larynx (voice box) has vocal folds 2 strong elastic bands (vibrate when air passes through) Speech Bands tighten up when swallowing to prevent food into trachea 4. Trachea Walls reinforced with cartilage rings At its base, respiratory tract splits into right and left bronchus 5. Bronchi Walls reinforced with cartilage rings Extends into left and right lungs Splits into bronchioles 6. Bronchioles No cartilage Smooth muscles tubes Changes airflow by dilation + construction @ end of each bronchiole is a cluster of air sacs—Alveoli 7. Alveoli = ACTUAL exchange site of gases = thin walled, single-celled inflatable sacs Up to this point, no exchange of gas has occurred (air passages have just provide a method to get air to lungs) They are encircles by pulmonary caps We have 300 million Provide lots of SA for gas exchange
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