Chapter 4-Attention - Attention Chapter 4 Attention...

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Unformatted text preview: Attention Chapter 4 Attention Meanings Concentration Selection Limits in capacity Attention is central in perception, memory, language, problem solving Definitions General: attention is a concentration of mental activity Text A concentration of mental effort to focus on sensory stimuli, or mental events William James What holds attention determines action Selective Attention Ability to focus on one message and ignore all others Focusing on One Thing Cocktail Party Phenomenon Dichotic listening experiments Wood & Cowan (1995): 35% reported hearing name in channel supposed to ignore Ecological validity? Cowan & Wood (1997) and Duncan (1999) Selective Attention Theories Concerned with both how people attend to information on some channels at the expense of others Concerned with how much information is processed on unattended channels Early: Bottleneck Theories Assume all inputs are processed completely up to some particular stage, but only attended channels are processed more fully than that Different theories disagree on how much processing is done before the attentional bottleneck. Broadbents Filter Model Sensory Store (holds then transfers all) Filter (physical characteristics) Detector (meaning) STM Evidence for (dichotic listening exptsconcluded that it is difficult to switch attention between channels) Evidence against (info presented to the unattended ear is processed enough to provide listener with some awareness of its meaning) Dear Aunt Jane Cocktail Party Effect Treismans Attenuation Theory Proposed selection occurs in two stages Substituted attenuator for filter Stage 1: Attenuator analyzes incoming message: Physical characteristics Language Meaning leaky filter Stage 2 : Message is analyzed by dictionary unit Words have thresholds for being activated Common words have low threshold (threshold is smallest signal strength that can just be detected) L ate Selection Models Difference: early selection models only the physical characteristics are processed before selection; late selection models, both physical characteristics and meaning are processed Evidence to support both Experiment: Shadowing ambiguous sentences (They were throwing stones at the bank), but presented biasing word in unattended ear (river or money)....
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2008 for the course PSYC 4370 taught by Professor Traver during the Spring '07 term at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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Chapter 4-Attention - Attention Chapter 4 Attention...

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