HD 220 PRELIM 1 - HD 220 PRELIM 1 Week 1 (Chapter 2): 1....

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ventral caudal rostral dorsal ventral caudal rostral Cephalic flexure HD 220 PRELIM 1 Week 1 (Chapter 2): 1. Terminology: (a) Gyrus = A groove in brain matter, usually a groove found in the neocortex or cerebellum. Sulcus = A small cleft formed by the folding of the cerebral cortex (the brain’s thin outer “bark” layer). * Bumps in the brain’s folded surface are called gyri, and cracks are called sulci. (b) Slices: Sagittal = between the nose Coronal = down through top (ear to ear down) Axial = horizontal slice (c) Directional Terms: ~ Anterior (towards the front) vs. Posterior (towards the back) ~ Superior (above) vs. Inferior (below) ~ Medial (towards the middle) vs. Lateral (towards the side) ~ Rostral (beak) vs. Caudal (tail) ~ Dorsal (back) vs. Ventral (belly)
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(d) Afferent = Conducting towards a central nervous system structure (i.e. carries info from sensory receptors in skin to the brain). Efferent = Conducting away from a central nervous system structure (i.e. carries info from the brain to the neurons controlling leg muscle, causing a response). (e) Gray Matter = Areas of the nervous system composed predominantly of cell bodies and blood vessels. White Matter = Areas of the nervous system rich in fat-sheathed neural axons. 2. Meninges = Three layers of protective tissue—dura mater (double layer enclosing brain and spinal cord in a loose sack), arachnoid (middle thin layer), and pia mater (inner-most tough layer touching brain surface)—that encase the brain and spinal cord. * CSF between arachnoid and pia mater. 3. Meningitis = Infection of the meninges (particularly the pia mater and arachnoid layer and the CSF between them) that can be bacterial or viral. Pressure on the brain causes inflammation which can lead to drowsiness, vomiting, stiffness in neck or legs, cold/flu symptoms, etc and college students at high risk. Encephalitis = Infection of the brain caused by virus (usually) or bacteria. Common from West Nile virus and symptoms include sleep disturbance, sudden fever, photophobia, unsteady gait, etc. which are caused by death of the substantia nigra. Hydrocephalus = Buildup of pressure in the brain and, in infants, swelling of the head caused if the flow of CSF is blocked; can result in retardation. (4) 4 Lobes: ~ Frontal = Cerebral cortex anterior to the central sulcus and beneath the frontal bone of the skull.
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~ Parietal = Cerebral cortex posterior to the central sulcus and beneath the parietal bone at the top of the skull. ~ Temporal = Cortex lying below the lateral fissure, beneath the temporal bone at the side of the skull. ~ Occipital = Cerebral cortex at the back of the brain and beneath the occipital bone. 5. Stroke = Sudden appearance of neurological symptoms as a result of severe interruption of blood flow to the brain. ~ Kills or damages nerve cells due to lack of oxygen (blockage or rupture) 6. Ventricles = Cavities in the brain that contain CSF (primarily in the lateral ventricles) with unidirectional flow.
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2009 for the course HD 2200 taught by Professor Belmonte,m. during the Spring '07 term at Cornell University (Engineering School).

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HD 220 PRELIM 1 - HD 220 PRELIM 1 Week 1 (Chapter 2): 1....

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