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January 28 Lecture - The Scientific Method 1 Identify the...

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The Scientific Method 1. Identify the problem a. Account for paradoxical incidents b. Extrapolate from similar problems c. Introspect on own experiences d. Reverse direction of a commonsense hypothesis i. TV causes violence or violent people just watch more TV? e. Analyze a problem into component pieces i. Cartoon violence vs CSI f. Theories – frameworks for explaining various events or processes g. Hypotheses – testable prediction derived from theories i. Hypothesis must be falsifiable (able to be disproved) 2. Data collection a. Population – entire group we wish to study b. Sample – subset of the population i. Representative sample – sample accurately represents entire population (gender, location, etc) ii. Random sample – every member of the population has equal chance of being chosen iii. Convenience sample – easily accessible 3. Observation a. Naturalistic observation i. Observation in uncontrolled setting (observation after snack time, sick subjects, etc) b. Survey, interview, questionnaire c. Case studies 4. Experiment a. Goal is to identify connections
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i. Manipulation of variables shows cause and effect When Things Go Wrong - Demand characteristics o Martin Orne replicated sensory deprivation study Brain Structure o
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