Week Two - CHAPTER 4 WORKERS JOBS AND JOB ANALYSIS Learning...

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CHAPTER 4 WORKERS, JOBS, AND JOB ANALYSIS Learning Objectives After students have read this chapter, they should be able to: Explain how the diversity of the workforce affects HR management functions. Identify components of work flow analysis that must be considered. Define job design and identify common approaches to varying job design. Describe different types of work teams and HR facets that must be considered. Discuss how telework and work flexibility are linked to work-life balancing efforts. Describe job analysis and the stages and methods used in the process. 57
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Week Two List the components of job descriptions. CHAPTER 4: WORKERS, JOBS, AND JOB ANALYSIS Chapter Overview This chapter begins with a discussion about the workforce composition and the business contributions of diverse workers. Race and ethnicity, generational differences, and gender workforce diversity are included. The rest of the chapter explains how the total work of the organization is divided up into jobs and gives primary attention to two major HR activities related to jobs: job design and job analysis. The nature of jobs and work is explored with an introduction to work flow analysis, technology and work flow, and business process reengineering. Next, the concepts related to the person/job fit and the job/person match are introduced and the three popular approaches to job design are described: job enlargement and job enrichment, job rotation, and job sharing. The Job Characteristics Model is also covered and each of the five job dimensions associated with this model are presented: skill variety, task identity, task significance, autonomy, and feedback. Job design issues related to the use of worker teams are discussed including a description of the types of teams and the advantages and disadvantages of team jobs. Next, jobs and work scheduling are discussed. Topics include telework, work schedule alternatives, shift work, compressed workweeks, flexible work schedules, and work-life balancing. The next section is on the nature of job analysis including the purposes and responsibilities. Task based and competency based job analysis are described. The following section goes over the stages in the job analysis process: (1) planning the job analysis, (2) preparing and introducing the job analysis, (3) conducting the job analysis, (4) developing job descriptions and job specifications, and (5) maintaining and updating job descriptions and job specifications. Then, methods for getting job analysis information are described: observation, interviewing, questionnaires, computerized job analysis, combined methods, and O*Net. Other issues related to job analysis are also explored such as the behavioral aspects of job analysis including current incumbent emphasis, “inflation” of jobs and job titles, and employee and managerial anxieties. The legal aspects of job analysis also receive special attention in relationship to the Americans with Disabilities Act and wage/hour regulations. The chapter concludes with a discussion of job descriptions and job specifications.
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