Psychological Disorders

Psychological Disorders - Psychological Disorders- Abnormal...

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Psychological Disorders- Abnormal Behavior I. Medical Model Applied to Abnormal Behavior a. Medical model- proposes that it is useful to think of abnormal behavior as a disease b. Before the medical model people believed in superstition i. When people acted strangely they believed they were possessed ii. People were treated with chants, rituals, and exorcisms iii. If the individual was threatening more harmful acts were pursued c. After the medical model was introduced people had sympathy for people with disorders rather than feared and hated d. Thomas Szas argues that abnormal behavior involves a deviation from social norms rather than and illness i. Problems in living rather than medical problems e. Although Szas has some merit diagnosis, etiology, and prognosis help with the study of abnormal behavior i. Diagnosis- involves distinguishing one illness from another ii. Etiology- refers to the apparent causation and developmental history of an illness iii. Prognosis- a forecast about the probable course of an illness II. Criteria of Abnormal Behavior a. What is normal? i. When clinicians make diagnoses they rely on a variety of criteria 1. Deviance a. Behavior that deviates from society b. Acceptable behavior differs from culture to culture 2. Maladaptive- when something (such as the use of a drug) interferes with a person’s social or occupational functioning 3. Personal Distress- based on the person’s report of stress b. When diagnosing a psychological disorder clinicians have to use value judgments which distinguish normal from abnormal i. These include culture values, social trends, political forces, and scientific knowledge III. Psychodiagnosis: The Classification of Disorders a. Overview of The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders i. Diagnoses of disorders are made on Axes I and II 1. Axis I- diagnoses are recorded (clinical syndromes) a. Disorders usually first diagnosed in a infancy, childhood, or adolescence- disorders that arise before adolescence i. Ex. ADD, autism, enuresis, and stuttering b. Organic mental disorders- temporary or permanent dysfunctions of brain tissue caused by disease or chemicals i. Ex. Delirium, dementia, and amnesia
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c. Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders i. Characterized by psychotic symptoms 1. Disorganized behavior, delusions, and hallucinations ii. Characterized by over six months of behavior deterioration 1. Delusion disorder and schizoaffective disorder d. Mood disorders- emotional disturbance i. Major depression, bipolar disorder, dysthymic disorder, and cyclothymic disorder e. Anxiety disorders- signs of anxiety f. Somatoform disorders- somatic symptoms that resemble physical illnesses i. Ex. Somatiztion, conversion disorders, and hypochondriasis g. Dissociative disorders- sudden temporary alteration or dysfunction of memory, consciousness, and identity h. Sexual and gender-identity disorders i. Gender identity- discomfort with identity as male or female ii. Paraphilias- preference for unusual acts to
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Psychological Disorders - Psychological Disorders- Abnormal...

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