Unformatted text preview: Sexual Motivation Sexual 0. An evolutionary (sociobiological) perspective on sexual motivation 1. human sexual motives have evolved to maximize reproductive success and confer a survival advantage confer 2. biggest proponent: David Buss (The Evolution of Desire, 1994) 3. How and why the sexes differ in mate selection preferences 4. The sexual selection pressure facing females: The 5. The sexual selection pressure facing males: 5. 6. If evol theory is correct, these preferences should hold across cultures 7. Study by Buss et al. 8. surveyed more than 10T people from 37 different cultures 9. Ss rated importance of 32 characteristics in potential mates 10. results: results: 11. similarities across the sexes (universal across all cultures): 11. 12. differences between the sexes (universal across all cultures): 13. women: 14. men: 15. gender differences further supported in analysis of personal ads 15. gender (e.g., Kendrick and Keefe, 1992)) (e.g., 16. men seek : 17. women seek: 18. but is it really fertility that men are looking for? 19. men in mid 20s men 20. men in 30s 20. men 21. men in 50s 21. men 22. in contrast, women of all ages 22. 23. can see this pattern in marriage statistics (Kendrick & Keefe, 1992) 24. alternative explanations: 24. 25. What other male-female mate selection differences can evolutionary psychology explain? 25. 26. sexual jeolousy (Buss et al., 1996) 27. Question: What would distress you more? 28. a.) imagining your partner forming an emotional attachment to someone else (i.e., emotional infidelity) else 29. b. ) imagining your partner enjoying passionate sexual intercourse with that other person (i.e., sexual infidelity) that 30. men: seeking to pass on their genes men: their 31. women: seeking financial resources 32. result: result: 33. Why are men more willing to have casual sex than are women? 33. 34. Conversely, why are women cautious, choosy, and seek a commitment? 35. evolutionary answer: 36. why are women more concerned with attractiveness and remaining youthful in 36. appearance appearance 37. evol. answer: 38. why are men the “gift-givers” and women the “receivers” 39. evol. answer: 40. why are men more likely to be driving around in fancy cars, showing off their material resources, flaunting their social position? 41. evol. answer: 41. 42. why do women prefer taller men 43. evol. answer: 44. why are women impressed by acts of daring and bravery 45. evol. answer: 46. what role does evolution play in male and female standards of physical attractiveness (found across cultures) (found 47. Darwinian beauty principle: features we consider “attractive” are those that signal high reproductive potential 48. examples of evolutionarily-determined physical preferences: 48. why do women prefer taller men (also: firm butts, washboard abs)
49. hip-waist ratio 50. ideal female waist: 2/3 size of hips 51. ideal male waist: 9/10 size of hips 52. left-right symmetry In sum, evol. Psych. Offers a provocative (but conservative) new perspective on human sex motivation Hunger and Eating 53. What causes hunger? 54. The role of the stomach: 55. Cannon & Washburn (1912) 56. swallowed balloon and recorded stomach contractions 57. concluded: hunger = stomach contractions 58. but: hunger can be felt without a stomach hunger 59. The role of the hypothalamus: 60. lateral hypothalamus (LH): the hunger center 61. initiates eating (the start mechanism) 62. iif stimulated: the animal will eat (and eat and eat) f 63. iif destroyed: the animal refuses to eat (aphagia) 63. f 64. ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH); the satiation center 64. 65. turns off eating (stop mechanism) 66. if stimulated: eating stops 67. iif destroyed: animal overeats (hyperphagia) f 68. genetic predispositions 68. 69. Stunkard et al. (1990) 70. MZ twins vs. DZ twins MZ MZ twins had more similar boys wt. than DZ twins (even when raised apart) 71. how the body regulates weight over the long term 71. how over 72. the "set-point" (SP) hypothesis: 73. SP = the weight you maintain without effort to gain or lose weight 74. determined by: the number and size of your fat cells 75. set point acts like thermostat for fat levels 76. iif fat content dips below your set point: you get hungry f 77. iif fat content rises above set point: hunger decreases 77. f 78. support for SP theory: humans (and other animals) tend to maintain constant 78. weight over long periods of time without weight monitoring 79. SP theory has major implications for dieting 79. 80. if you diet and your body weight goes below your SP: it will trigger decreased metabolism and chronic hunger decreased There will always be a “pull” to go back to your SP ways Note: SP can increase, but not decrease, across the life span 81. "restrained eaters": individuals who attempt to maintain their weight below their set-point through chronic dieting 82. go hungry much of the time, but constantly think about food 82. assessed using restraint scale 83. when their self-control is disrupted (due to stress, etc.): they become 83. “disinhibited” and eat to excess “disinhibited” 84. the "what the hell" effect (Herman & Mack, 1975) 85. bulimia nervosa (BN), "the binge-purge syndrome" 85. 86. F:M 10:20 87. about 2-3% of all women, but 5-7% of college women 88. marked by cycles of extreme binge eating followed by self-induced vomiting 89. binge-purge episodes may occur several times/wk 90. usually maintain normal weight 91. BN often begins with dieting (restrained eating) that spirals out of control 92. try to stay below set point, but keep losing control and binge (much like restrained eaters) eaters) Are the things that stimulate sexual arousal in humans the same as the things that stimulate sexual arousal in other animals? arousal 93. pheromones: air-borne chemicals that affect sexual behavior and territorial marking in many species species 94. iin animals, the vomeronasal organ (VNO) is the sense organ for detecting pheromones n 95. What about humans? 95. 96. Do humans have a VNO, a "sixth sense"? 97. what does the preliminary research show (Berliner, 1996)? what preliminary 98. what happens when you expose VNO to opposite-sex chemicals "extracted from the skin" ? "extracted Exposing VNO to opposite-sex chemicals “extracted from the skin” resulted in hormone level and brain wave changes
99. do such changes occur when VNO is exposed to placebo chemicals? 99. Changes not observed when VNO was exposed to placebo chemicals
100. do "pheromones" really affect human sexual arousal? Don’t know if “pheromones” really affect human sexual arousal Many only produce a general feeling of “well-being”
101. do pheromones affect ovulatory synchronization in humans? 101. Pheromones may help account for menstrual synchronization in females ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2009 for the course PSY 202 taught by Professor Henriques during the Fall '08 term at University of Wisconsin.
- Fall '08