Week10 - Development Development 0 Perspectives 1 language development 2 physical development 3 cognitive development 4 moral development 5 gender

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Unformatted text preview: Development Development 0. Perspectives: 1. language development 2. physical development 3. cognitive development 4. moral development 5. gender development 6. social and personality development Social-Personality Development 7. building an attachment (a deep and affectionate emotional bond) 8. in some species this is innate 9. Konrad Lorenz 10. "imprinting" in some lower species (e.g., ducks, geese) 11. usually occurs during "critical period” 12. visual preferences 13. Franz, 1961 14. recorded amount of time 2-5 day-old infants spent gazing at each of 6 disks disks 15. result: 16. Johnson et al., 1991 16. 17. presented newborns with 3 different "heads" 18. normal face 19. scrambled face 20. blank form 21. result: 22. Meltzhoff et al. 1983 23. Smell preferences ("the nose knows") 24. can infants recognize the smell of their mothers? 25. can mothers recognize the smell of their infants? "Baby features": innate elicitors of maternal protective feelings "Baby 26. cues that define "babyness": 27. a large protruding forehead 28. large eyes 29. blunt nose 30. chubby cheeks 31. stubby limbs 32. but what else does the caretaker need to do? 33. the Harry Harlow experiments 34. -Are infants drawn to the mother for the food and nourishment she supplies? 35. [or] 36. -Are they drawn to the mother for "contact comfort" (comfort of her warm and cuddly body)? 37. Exp. 1: 38. a. a wire mesh cylinder with a monkey-like head 39. b. a soft terrycloth cylinder with a monkey-like head 40. result: result: 41. 41. 42. 42. 43. 43. Exp. 2: Exp. Harlow removes food from cloth mother Harlow result: result: 44. 44. 45. 46. Exp. 3: Harlow introduces frightening stimulus result: result: 47. Conc: 47. Conc: 48. How do motherless infant monkeys turn out as adults? 48. 49. -Harlow isolated some monkeys from all social contact from birth 50. Orphanages (the human analogy) 51. -Provence and Lipton, 1962 51. 52. -kids given adequate nutrition but little social stimulation -kids 53. -contact with adults restricted to times they were fed or diapered 53. 54. Are the effects of early social deprivation reversible? Are 55. Suomi & Harlow, 1972 55. 56. attempted to rehab young monkeys back to social life after 6 mo. of isolation 57. paired together with carefully chosen monkey therapists 58. early results: early 59. later results: 59. 60. Skeels, 1966 61. can we get reversible effects with humans? 62. followed children in an overcrowded orphanage 63. some were transferred to institution with more caregivers some 64. Implications of skin-to-skin contact for the premature baby 64. 65. Schanberg & Field, 1987 66. treated grp receives body massage for 10 days 67. control grp did not receive massage 68. results for massage grp: 69. how does touch produce such beneficial effects? 69. 70. What other factors affect the child and mother's attachment to each other? 71. First, how is parent-infant attachment measured? 72. the Strange Situation Test 73. measure: 74. how does the baby react when its mother leaves the room and is left with a stranger? stranger? 75. how does the baby react when mother returns? 76. classified as having either a "secure" or "insecure" attachment 77. Secure attachment 78. wander/explore room when mother is present; returns periodically for comfort/contact comfort/contact 79. may/may not cry when mother leaves 80. very receptive to mother's return 80. 81. Insecure attachment (2 types) 82. 1. anxious-ambivalent attachment 1. 83. anxious even when mothers are nearby, clinging 83. 84. protest excessively when she leaves 85. angry when mother returns 86. 2. avoidant attachment 2. 87. seek little contact with mother; ignore her when she approaches 87. 88. not distressed when she leaves 89. avoid/ignore mother when she returns 90. Long term effects of attachment style 91. Ainsworth (1989) and others show that: 92. infants classified as securely attached at 12 mo. later had more positive selfesteem, were more popular, outgoing, self-assured, and socially skilled in school 93. What factors influence attachment and the particular form it takes? What 94. maternal sensitivity: affection, alertness to infant signals, prompt responses, appropriate 94. level of control, etc. level 95. does it matter? 96. temperament: an individual's characteristic (biologically/ genetically based) mood, activity level, and emotional reactivity that is evident shortly after birth level, 97. Chess & Thomas 98. following 236 newborn infants since 1956 99. first measures taken at 3 months 100. their findings suggest 3 basic categories of temperament 101. 1. easy children --generally cheerful, regular patterns of hunger and tiredness, adapt easily to new experiences experiences 102. 2. slow to warm up children --uncooperative in new situations, but eventually enjoy them 103. 3. difficult children --unhappy; uncooperative; temper tantrums, spit out new food, cry loudly, etc. --unhappy; 104. Are these temperaments stable over time? 105. Chess & Thomas, 1990: Chess 106. Kagan (1989): 106. Kagan 107. measured "behavioral inhibition” in response to strange situations at 21 107. mo., 4 yr., 5.5 yr., 7.5 yr. mo., 108. inhibited temperament --shy, wary of unfamiliar people and situations 109. uninhibited temperament --approach unfamiliar people and situations confidently 110. So which of these factors (maternal sensitivity vs. temperament) influence attachment more? 111. Seifer et al. 1996 112. measured attachment at ages 6 mo., 9 mo., and 12 mo. 113. measured maternal sensitivity 114. measured temperament 115. result: 116. another example: (Suomi et al., 1987) 117. Does parenting matter? 118. 3 styles of parenting (proposed by Baumrind, 1971) 119. 1. authoritarian parents ("It's because I say so, that's why!!") 120. strict, punitive, unsympathetic 121. value obedience value 122. don't explain rules to child 122. don't 123. seldom praise 123. 124. 2. permissive parents ("Do whatever you want") 124. 125. lax discipline; rarely use punishment; complete freedom 126. loving, but don't assert authority 127. 3. authoritative-reciprocal parents ("Do it for this reason") 128. firm but understanding (“give and take”) 129. set limits but also encourage independence 130. Are there differences between children that are raised in these 3 different styles? 131. yes, these 3 parenting styles appear to be "related" to children's social/emotional development development 132. authoritarian children who are unfriendly, withdrawn, low independence, low authoritarian s.e, prone to anger (if boys), discontented s.e, 133. permissive children who are immature, lacking in self-reliance, more permissive substance abuse, unhappy substance 134. authoritative-recip children who are socially self-confident, cooperative, selfauthoritative-recip reliant, do well in school, and generally happy 135. 3 problems 136. 1. magnituge of correlations 1. 137. 2. the problem of directionality 137. 138. 3. shared genes 3. 139. Judith Harris (1998): Parents may matter less than you think, and peers and genes may matter 139. more more 140. support for Harris's argument 141. studies of twins 142. studies of siblings 143. day-care vs. parents 144. any role for the environment? 144. 145. is there any way for parents to shape their children? 146. can parenting style can make a difference? ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2009 for the course PSY 202 taught by Professor Henriques during the Fall '08 term at Wisconsin.

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