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Unformatted text preview: Psychotherapy Psychotherapy 0. Psychoanalysis (the psychodynamic approach): 1. Brief review: 2. 1. anxiety-provoking aggressive/sexual urges boil up from the id 2. ego erects "defenses" to prevent forbidden urges from reaching awareness 3. 3. sometimes urges are so strong that "super defenses" are needed to protect the person from becoming aware of them protect 4. neuroses (e.g., phobias, OCD, dissoc. disorder) are actually "super defenses" in action defenses" 5. Goals of psychodynamic therapy: 6. need to bring underlying conflict into the open (“make the unconscious, conscious”) = achieving “insight” conscious”) 7. get pt. to deal with problem directly rather than defending through neurotic symptoms symptoms 8. Psychoanalytic techniques (to "sneak" behind defenses) 9. free association 10. dream analysis 11. manifest content 12. latent content 13. transference 14. when client reacts to the therapist as if the therapist was some important person in his/her early development important 15. Modern day "ego-analysts" 16. ego capable of more awareness (of conflicts, urges) than Freud thought 17. thus, can resolve conflicts by examining motives and fears in the present (don't have to delve into childhood “as much”) (don't 18. Behavior Therapy 19. action-oriented 20. based on principle that behavior is learned based learned thus, rely on learning principles (i.e. classical conditioning) 21. brief review: classical conditioning 22. exposure and response prevention 23. construction of fear hierarchy (e.g., hierarchy of fear of germs) sitting in a chair using someone else’s pencil petting a dog sitting on the lawn using a bathroom at Chicago O’Hare airport
24. gradual exposure 25. imaginal exposure 26. in vivo exposures sometimes do “flooding”
27. response prevention-stay in control with the CS 28. systematic desensitization 29. a tx where people learn to replace fear responses with relaxation responses responses 30. steps 31. construction of fear hierarchy (e.g., fear of flying) making airline reservation packing the night before driving to the airport watching as planes take off sitting on the plane actually taking off
32. relaxation training 33. gradual exposure 34. imaginal 35. in vivo 36. Cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT): "As you think, so shall you feel" Cognitive-behavior 37. review of assumptions of cognitive model: 37. review 38. disordered cognitions cause psychological disorder 38. 39. by changing these cognitions, the disorder can be alleviated Activating event (A) Activating event (A) Emotional Consequence (C) Belief (B) Consequence (C) 40. CBT characteristics: 41. short term 42. action-oriented “Most therapies help many clients feel better…but only a few therapies help them stay “Most feel stay better.” better.” 43. rate of growth 43. 44. “father” of CBT: Aaron Beck 45. originally developed CBT to explain and treat depression 46. then extended CBT model to other disorders via principle of "cognitive specificity" "cognitive 47. Depression: Depression: 48. "If I don't set the highest standards for myself, I am 48. likely to end up a second rate person" likely 49. Anorexia Nervosa: Anorexia 50. "My weight and shape determine my worth and 50. acceptability" acceptability" 51. Social Phobia: Social 52. "If I'm not entertaining, people will be bored with 52. me" me" 53. Panic Disorder: Panic 54. "If my heart is beating rapidly, it means I'm having 54. a heart attack" heart 55. goal of CBT: to change unrealistic assumptions (i.e., "cognitive restructuring") restructuring") 56. how: via combination of cognitive and behavioral techniques 57. cognitive techniques: 58. questioning the evidence 59. recognition of “logical errors” 60. e.g., "selective abstraction", "absolutistic thinking" 61. behavioral techniques: 62. devise experiment to test validity of beliefs 63. role rehearsal 64. skills training 65. CBT Illustration: Panic Disorder ...
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