timber - 1384 Natural Resources - Management Practices...

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1 384 Natural Resources - Management Practices TIMBER MANAGEMENT PRACTICES Natural resources management practices should encompass the multiple uses made of natural forests and woodlands, and forest plantations. That is, these ecosystems should be managed, when and where appropriate, to provide timber to be processed into lumber, plywood, and paper, food and shelter for livestock and wildlife species, and sites for organized campgrounds and picnic area. Timber, therefore, is only one of these multiple uses. Timber management decisions must consider impacts on other products and uses that can be obtained from forests, woodlands, and plantations. DEFINITIONS Silviculture is the art of tending to natural forests and woodlands, and forest plantation to ensure their sustainable development and renewal. Silvicultural systems include intermediate cuttings and the reproductive methods that sustain and renew the forest, woodland, or plantation throughout the rotational cycle. Stands are aggregations of trees occupying the same area and distinguishable from the trees found on adjacent areas. Stands can be the primary units of planning and implementing timber management practices. A regulated forest, woodland, or plantation produces a continuous flow of timber. The amount of timber that is available for harvesting in a specified time period is the allowable cut . The rotation age represents the number of years that are required to establish and grow timber crops to a specified condition of maturity. A timber harvesting operation includes two steps - felling and bucking of trees; and skidding, loading, and transporting the timber to the processing mill. SILVICULTURAL TREATMENTS Silvicultural treatments are incorporated into the management practices of natural forests and woodlands, and forest plantations. A distinction is made in silviculture between reproductive methods and silvicultural systems . Reproductive methods are orderly manners by which natural forests and woodlands, and forest plantations are established or renewed. Silvicultural systems are more comprehensive in scope, including applications of intermediate cuttings throughout the rotational cycle of a forest, woodland, or plantation. Reproductive Methods Two broad categories of reproductive methods are recognized - natural reproductive methods and artificial reproductive methods . Natural reproductive methods, 1
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when successful, lead to the establishment of natural forests and woodlands, while artificial reproductive methods are used to establish forest plantations of specified compositions. Natural Reproductive Methods A number of natural reproductive methods are recognized in forestry. These methods and the conditions to which they apply include: ! High forest methods - producing forests or woodlands from seed ! Even-aged stands - age class differential is less than 10 to 20 years ! Clearcutting methods - removal of entire stand in one cutting, with reproduction obtained naturally or, when natural regeneration is not
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timber - 1384 Natural Resources - Management Practices...

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