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study_guide_1 - INDV 101 – Structure of Mind and Behavior...

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Unformatted text preview: INDV 101 – Structure of Mind and Behavior University of Arizona Study Guide Test #1 Ch. 1,2,6 This study guide is an interpretation of the class lectures of Professor Narter as well as David G. Myers’ Exploring Psychology textbook. Chapter 1 – Thinking Critically with Psychological Science How Psychology Began • Early Greek philosophers questioned both the origins of knowledge and how the mind and body are connected o Is knowledge innate or attained through experience? o Do the mind and body act as separate entities , or do they act together ? o Aristotle – he believed that knowledge was attained through experience and that the mind and body were one entity • Philosophers to Remember o Wundt – Employed “Introspection ” by asking subjects how certain images made them feel or what the first thing they thought of when shown a particular image. • Shortcomings: o Some subjects would make information up o Some subjects weren’t very introspective The father of Psychology as we know it o William James American philosopher who wrote the first psychology textbook in 1890 o Mary Calkins Became the APA’s (American Psychology Association) first female president and was William James’ student. o Sigmund Freud Whereas previous psychologists had focused on the conscious mind, Freud focused on the Unconscious Mind and its effects on our behavior. • Conducted psychological studies on young children • Psychology’s changing definition o Until 1920s: Science of the Mental Process o 1920s to 1960s : Science of Observable Behavior o 1960s to present: science of behavior and mental processes • Behaviorists o Watson and Skinner Studied the subject matter of scientific psychology through the study of overt behavior Not concerned with the “process” of psychology • Humanistic Psychologists o Maslow and Rogers Focused on current influences on our growth potential and our need for acceptance and love Attempted to answer the question “How can we be the best we can be?” Nurture vs. Nature debate Controversy over the relative influences of experience and biology in Psychology. Biology – “Nature” – the things we’ve genetically inherited Experience – “Nurture” – the thing’s we’ve acquired through experience Perspectives of Psychology – Memorize! If given a scenario or experiment, be able to identify which field of Psychology it correlates with • Neuroscience – studies how our bodies and brains work together to create emotions memories and sensory. • Evolutionary – considers how evolution influences our behavioral tendencies • Behavior genetics – “nature/nurture” – how biological inheritance and environment influence our behavior • Psychodynamic – FREUD – views behavior as emerging from unconscious drive • Behavioral – how our observable behaviors are acquired and how they change over time • Cognitive – how we encode information, process it, store it, and retrieve it. •...
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