intro_optical_switching - 1 Introduction to all optical...

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1 Introduction to all optical switching technologies Index 1 Introduction to all optical switching technologies ............................................................................. 1 1.1 Introduction .............................................................................................................................. 2 2 DWDM ............................................................................................................................................. 2 3 Optical switching .............................................................................................................................. 3 4 Introduction to MEMs ....................................................................................................................... 4 4.1 Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems Switches ......................................................................... 5 4.2 Liquid-Crystal switches ............................................................................................................ 6 4.3 Bubble switches ....................................................................................................................... 7 4.4 Thermo-Optic switches ............................................................................................................ 8 4.5 Liquid-Crystals-in-Polymer switches ........................................................................................ 9 4.6 Electro-Holographic switches .................................................................................................. 9 5 Characteristic and performance Data ............................................................................................ 10 6 Examples of applications ............................................................................................................... 11 6.1 Optical Cross Connects ......................................................................................................... 11 6.2 Hybrid OXC ............................................................................................................................ 11 6.3 All optical OXC ....................................................................................................................... 12 7 Sources .......................................................................................................................................... 16 8 Information about document .......................................................................................................... 17 Figures Figure 4-1: MEMs [2] ..................................................................................................................................... 5 Figure 4-2: MEMs Switch ............................................................................................................................ 6 Figure 4-3: Liquid Crystal Optical Switch ....................................................................................................... 7 Figure 4-4: 2 x 2 digital optical switch ........................................................................................................... 8 Figure 4-5: 1x2 liquid-crystal-in-polymers switch ............................................................................................ 9 Figure 4-6: Scheme of 2x2 electro-holographic switch .................................................................................. 10 Figure 6-1: Hybrid OCX ............................................................................................................................. 12 Figure 6-2: Mach-Zehnder WGR ................................................................................................................ 12 Figure 6-3: Micromachined mirrors can be rotating (a) or moving up and down (b) .......................................... 13 Figure 6-4: Four mirror switching array ....................................................................................................... 14 Figure 6-5: 2-axis motion of MEMs OCX mirror [12] ........................................................................................ 14 Figure 6-6: Single MEMs mirror for OCX [13] ................................................................................................. 15 Figure 6-7: 256x256 OXC switching array [14] ............................................................................................... 15 Tables Table 5-1: Characteristics and performance data table ................................................................................. 10
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1.1 Introduction As the Internet and modern communications becomes increasingly prevalent across the globe, fiber optics - as the defacto infrastructure that supports the information revolution - is racing to keep up. The demand for Internet services is driving the growth of data traffic worldwide. Software developers and users are constantly adopting applications that devour more and more bandwidth in order to speed delivery of information. As multiple forms of traffic place increasingly heavy burdens on fiber networks, carriers are looking for innovative ways to push more data through existing fiber. Generally, the current telecom infrastructure is a mix, with fiber optic cables in the 'core' long- haul backbone networks, some fiber and copper wire in metro or regional networks, and primarily copper wire for access networks and 'last mile' connections to customers (though other technologies -- such as cable, satellite, and fixed wireless -- are also used). The Holy Grail in telecommunications and networking today is the 'all-optical network', where every communication would remain an optical transmission from start to finish. The speed and capacity of such a network - with hundreds, if not thousands, of channels per fiber strand - would be practically limitless. To this end, several key developments have emerged that are exploiting and extending the capability of current fiber optic systems in significant ways; we will briefly discuss two of these: Dense Wave Division Multiplexing ( DWDM ) and Optical Switching . 2 DWDM One of the most critical technologies enabling the capacity expansion of fiber optic systems is Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM), which can exponentially increase the bandwidth of a fiber optic strand.
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