slides 11 Telephone Networks - Telephone Network Major...

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Telephone Network Telephone Network Major Components LATAs Making a Connection Analog Services Digital Services A Brief History
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A telephone system
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LATA (local access and transport area) is a term in the U.S. for a geographic area covered by one or more local telephone companies, which are legally referred to as local exchange carriers (LECs). A connection between two local exchanges within the LATA is referred to as intraLATA. Intra-LATA services are provided by local exchange carriers. Since 1996, there are two types of LECs: incumbent local exchange carriers and competitive local exchange carriers.
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Switching offices in a LATA
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POPs An Interexchange Carrier (IXC) is a U.S. legal and regulatory term for a telecommunications company, commonly called a long-distance telephone company A point-of-presence (POP) is an access point from one place to the rest that may actually reside in rented space owned by the telecommunications carrier to which the ISP is connected. A POP usually includes routers, digital/analog call aggregators, servers, and frequently frame relays or ATM switches.
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Rotary and touch-tone dialing Voice communication used analog signals in the past, but is now moving to digital signals. On the other hand, dialing started with digital signals (rotary) and is now moving to analog signals (touch-tone).
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TELEPHONE NETWORK TELEPHONE NETWORK Telephone Telephone networks networks use use circuit circuit switching switching. The The telephone telephone network network had had its its beginnings beginnings in in the the late late 1800 1800s. The The entire entire network, network, which which is is referred referred to to as as the the plain plain old old telephone telephone system system ( POTS ), ), was was originally originally an an analog analog system system using using analog analog signals signals to to transmit transmit voice voice.
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