Lec6 Heart Disease

Lec6 Heart Disease - Biol 115:Cardiovascular Disease and...

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Unformatted text preview: Biol 115:Cardiovascular Disease and Atherosclerosis Tanya Bekyarova Why should we care about cardiovascular disease? Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most common cause of death in the western world Disorders of the blood vessels: Hypertension/high blood pressure Atherosclerosis Stroke Heart attack Aneurysm Arrhythmias Hypertension High blood pressure results when blood moves through vessels at a rate higher than normal often due to arterial plaque Prolonged elevation in blood pressure Affects 20% of Americans Systolic > 140 mmHg, diastolic >90. Diastolic better indicator of problems Kidney problems, obesity, excess Na, genetic predisposition Hypertension A silent killer because there are few symptoms Causes heart to work harder increasing risk of failure May damage arteries increasing probability of forming artherosclerotic plaque myocardial infarction, stroke aneurysms Early detection essential, few symptoms often until too late Atherosclerosis Plaques or deposits of cholesterol accumulate on the walls of arteries, inhibiting blood flow by obstructing the artery If a blood clot forms, it can lodge on this obstruction and completely block blood flow A Plaque that is stationary is called a thrombus and an embolus when it detaches and can move to distant sites thromboembolism , i.e. when it comes to stop again somewhere, is very dangerous! Associated with a stroke, heart attack and aneurysm Atherosclerosis (directly or indirectly) causes 50% of all deaths in US Atherosclerosis Stroke Usually occurs when embolus blocks a small cranial artery or cause it to burst Also known as a cerebrovascular accident (CVA) or stroke Part of the brain dies dues to lack of oxygen "Stroke" may result in permanent neurological damage Paralysis or death may result Early warnings numbness hands or face, trouble speaking, temporary blindness one eye Treatment of Stroke A stroke is occasionally treated with thrombolysis ("clot buster") Usually with supportive care ( speech and language therapy , physiotherapy and occupational therapy ) Secondary prevention with antiplatelet drugs ( aspirin and often dipyridamole ), Blood pressure control, statins , and in selected patients with carotid endarterectomy and anticoagulation Mechanical removal of the thrombus sometimes used within eight hours of the onset of symptoms. Mechanical thrombectomy Heart attack Also known as a myocardial infarction (MI) Part of the heart dies due to lack of oxygen Can begin with angina pectoris, a pain that radiates down the left arm due to a blockage of a coronary artery Angina pectoralis Pain felt when blood supply to the heart is reduced Appears in the center of the chest and spreads to throat, upper jaw, back and arms (typically left one) Frequently a prelude to myocardial infarction Appears during activity, disappears when activity ceases Nitroglycerin is a vaso-dilator that reduces pain Chest pains may not be heart...
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Lec6 Heart Disease - Biol 115:Cardiovascular Disease and...

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