Lec7 Blood - Chapter 6 Cardiovascular System: Blood What...

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Chapter 6 Cardiovascular System: Blood
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What are the functions of blood? Transportation: oxygen, nutrients, wastes, carbon dioxide and hormones Defense: against invasion by pathogens Regulatory functions: body temperature, water- salt balance and body pH Form clots in wounds
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What is the composition of blood? Remember: blood is a fluid connective tissue Most people 5-6 l of blood in their bodies Formed elements : produced in red bone marrow Red blood cells/erythrocytes (RBC) White blood cells/leukocytes (WBC) Platelets Plasma : 92% water and 8% salts and organic molecules Plasma proteins are the most abundant molecules
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Fig. 6.2-1
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Plasma Composed of 10% plasma proteins and 90% water 3 major types of plasma proteins Plasma albumin most abundant plasma protein: Maintains osmotic balance Regulates pH Transporting molecules, including bilirubin
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Components of Plasma α and β globulins are carrier proteins that bind to hormones, fatty aids, ions inactive precursors to proteins that form clots Glucose and amino acids circulate in blood as nutrients to cells Antibodies also circulate in the blood - members of family of proteins called gamma globulins
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Where do the formed elements come from and what are they?
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Red Blood Cells (RBC's), (Erythrocytes) Produced in red bone marrow Destroyed in liver and spleen when too old Erythrocytes are turned over relatively quickly ~120 days 4.6 – 6.2 million/μL in men 4.2 – 5.4 million/μL in women
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Hematocrit Volume of blood occupied by red blood cells Varies by oxygen requirements of individuals Athletes often train at high altitudes to increase their hematocrit
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The structure of red blood cells is important to their function Lack a nucleus and few organelles Biconcave shape increases surface area Lack many organelles Contain about 280 million hemoglobin molecules Hemoglobin= iron containing oxygen carrier molecule; gives cells their red color Can bind 4 molecules of O 2
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Fig. 6.3a RBC’s about the same size as capillary diameter ~7 microns
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How is carbon dioxide transported? 68% as a bicarbonate ion in the plasma (this conversion takes place in RBC’s 25% in red blood cells 7% as carbon dioxide in the plasma
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Production of red blood cells Produced in the red bone marrow Lifespan of about 120 days Erythropoietin (EPO) is excreted by kidney cells and moves to red marrow when oxygen levels are low Old cells are destroyed by the liver and spleen
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What is blood doping? Any method of increasing the number of RBC’s to increase athletic performance It allows more efficient delivery of oxygen and reducing fatigue EPO is injected into a person months prior to an athletic event Is thought to be able to cause death due to thickening of blood that leads to a heart attack
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What disorders involve RBC’s? Anemia
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2009 for the course BIOL 115 taught by Professor Irving during the Spring '08 term at Illinois Tech.

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Lec7 Blood - Chapter 6 Cardiovascular System: Blood What...

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