Lec11 Respiratory System

Lec11 Respiratory System - Respiratory System Readings:...

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Respiratory System
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Readings: Mader 10th edition Chapter 9
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Overview of the respiratory system
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What is the pathway that air follows? nose pharynx larynx trachea bronchus bronchioles alveoli
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What constitutes the upper respiratory tract? Nose Pharynx Larynx Main functions of initial air passages are to warm, filter and moisten incoming air
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The nose Opens at the nostrils/nares and leads into the nasal cavities Hairs and mucus in the nose filters the air The nasal cavity has lot of capillaries that warm and moisten the air Specialized cells act as odor receptors Tear glands drain into the nasal cavities that can lead to a runny nose
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The pharynx Funnel-shaped cavity commonly called the “throat” 3 portions based on location: nasopharynx, oropharynx and laryngopharynx Tonsils provide a lymphatic defense during breathing at the junction of the oral cavity and pharynx
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The larynx Triangular, cartilaginous structure that passes air between the pharynx and trachea Bound on the top by the epiglottis, which covers the opening during swallowing Called the voice box and houses vocal cords Vocal cords are mucus membranes supported by ligaments surrounding the opening called the glottis
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Producing Sound Vocal cords vibrate to produce sound as air passes by them Volume of sound depends on volume of air expelled Pitch of sound can be varied by varying tension on the cords The pitch of an individual's voice depends on length and elasticity of his or her vocal cords.
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What constitutes the lower respiratory tract? Trachea Bronchial tree Lungs
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The trachea A tube, often called the windpipe, that connects the larynx with the 1° bronchi Made of connective tissue, smooth muscle and cartilaginous rings (they keep it open) Lined with cilia and mucus that help to keep the lungs clean
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Trachea Cilia beat upwards carrying mucus, dust upwards to pharynx Tracheotomy - surgical process of inserting a hole into the trachea in case of blockage Trachea branches into 2 bronchi which in turn branch into many bronchioles
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The bronchial tree Starts with two main bronchi that lead from the trachea into the lungs The bronchi continue to branch until they are small bronchioles about 1mm in diameter with thinner walls Bronchioles eventually lead to elongated sacs called alveoli, which make up the lungs
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The lungs The bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli beyond the 1° bronchi make up the lungs The right lung has 3 lobes while the left lung has 2 lobes that divide into lobules Each lung is enclosed by membranes called pleura The lungs are contained in the thoracic cavity which is bounded on the top and sides by the rib cage and the bottom by the diaphragm The diaphragm is a sheet of striated muscle , normally dome shaped
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The lungs
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Lec11 Respiratory System - Respiratory System Readings:...

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