Lec12 Urinary System

Lec12 Urinary System - Chapter 10 Urinary System and...

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Chapter 10 Urinary System and Excretion
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What are the organs of the urinary system Kidneys (2) – bean-shaped, fist-sized organ where urine is formed Ureters (2) – small, muscular tubes that carry urine from the kidneys to the bladder Bladder (1) – expandable organ that stores urine until it is expelled from the body Urethra (1) – tube (longer in men than women) that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body
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Overview of the urinary system
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Path of Urine Urine passes from the kidneys to the ureters to the bladder. Bladder made of smooth muscle Closed by internal and external sphincters Bladder ~ 600 ml capacity (up to 1.2 L some males) Empties when ~250 ml present Urine is expelled from the body via the urethra
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Urination During urination, urine is expelled from the body via the urethra Stretch receptors in the bladder send nerve impulse to the spinal cord causing sphincters to relax to allow urination External sphincter is a voluntary muscle (under conscious control) “micturation” – relaxation external sphincter
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What are the functions of the urinary system? 1. Excretion of metabolic wastes 2. Maintenance of water-salt balance 3. Maintenance of acid-base balance 4. Hormone secretion: renin and erythropoietin
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Excretion Defecation is the elimination of feces which is mainly undigested food products Excretion is the elimination of the waste products of metabolism
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Excretory organs Skin -excretes perspiration Liver- excretes bile pigments Lungs - remove carbon dioxide and water Kidneys - produce urine
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1. Excretion Why do we need to urinate? Need to eliminate certain waste products of metabolism Mostly of nitrogenous wastes: Urea Uric acid Creatinine
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Urea Urea made by the breakdown of amino acids in the liver
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Uric Acid From breakdown of nucleotides Insoluble Causes crystals in urine in neutered male cats Collects in joints of humans => gout
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Creatine Creatine~PO4 in muscle “Backup system” for ATP C~P => C => => creatine ATP <= ADP
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2 & 3. Maintenance of water-salt and acid-base balance Both are homeostatic mechanisms Water-salt balance helps to maintain blood pressure
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