Lec13 Skeletal System

Lec13 Skeletal System - Chapter 11 Skeletal System What are...

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Chapter 11 Skeletal System
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What are the functions of the skeletal system? 1. Supports the body 2. Protects the soft body parts 3. Produces blood cells 4. Stores minerals (calcium and phosphate) 5. Allows for movement by attaching muscles 6. Detoxification
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Skeletal System Osteology – study of bone Bone Cartilage Fibrous Connective Tissue (Ligaments, Tendons)
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Skeletal System Bone is a living tissue Consists of bone cells (osteocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts) in an non-cellular matrix Calcified matrix - organic matter ( collagen) - inorganic matter (hydroxyapatite- crystallized calcium phosphate) - Ca salts
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What are the important cells in bone growth, remodeling and repair? Osteoblasts – bone-forming cells Osteocytes – mature bone cells that maintain bone structure derived from osteoblasts Osteoclasts – bone-absorbing cells Chondroytes – cartilage-forming cells
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What is the anatomy of a long bone? Diaphysis – shaft of the bone made of compact bone and filled with yellow marrow Epiphysis – ends of the bone made mostly of spongy bone Articular cartilage – hyaline cartilage found on the ends of long bones Yellow bone marrow – stores fat Red bone marrow – makes blood cells found in spongy bone and flat bones Periosteum – layer of fibrous connective tissue covering the bone Ligaments – fibrous connective tissue that connects bones
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General Features of Bones Compact (dense) bone Dense White tissue that acts as outer shell ¾ of skeleton Composed of osteons with a central canal containing blood vessels Contains living bone cells called osteocytes chambers called lacunae
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More detail on bone… Spongy bone Made of plates with spaces filled with red bone marrow Loosely organized Spaces between bone tissue ¼ of skeleton
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Cartilage Cartilage – flexible connective tissue categorized based on the type and arrangement of matrix fibers Cartilage is not as strong as bone but more flexible Gel-like matrix Collagen and elastic fibers Cellular component called chondrocytes Found in lacunae
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Types of Cartilage Hyaline cartilage firm and somewhat flexible Found end of long bones, rib ends, larynx and trachea Fibro-cartilage is stronger than hyaline cartilage Wide rows of thick collagen fiber bundles Knee cartilage and inter-vertebral disks Elastic cartilage more flexible Matrix contains mainly elastin Found ear flaps and epiglottis
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How does bone develop? Ossification - the formation of bone in two distinct ways: 1. Intramembranous ossification - bone development between sheets of fibrous connective tissue; used in flat bones 2. Endochondrial ossification – cartilage is replaced by bone; used by most bones
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How does endochondral ossification occur? 1st
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Lec13 Skeletal System - Chapter 11 Skeletal System What are...

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