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Lec 8 - Systems Whystudyelections/electoral systems...

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Electoral Systems and Party Systems 2/5/09
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Why study elections/electoral systems? Malleable Observable Affect things we care about: Party system Representation Participation Accountability Composition of government
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Number of Parties The “So what” question: why should we care? How do we count parties? What is a party? How do we count? # that register # that compete # that win votes # that win seats
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Counting Parties Compare the following distributions .25, .25, .25, .25 .45, .45, .05, .05 .82, .06, .06, .06 All appear as 4 party systems.
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Effective Number of Parties ENP = 1/( v i 2 ) or 1/( s i 2 ) Vote shares --> effective number of electoral parties Seat shares --> effective number of legislative parties .25, .25, .25, .25 --> ENP=4 .45, .45, .05, .05 --> ENP=2.4 .82, .06, .06, .06 -->ENP=1.5
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What causes party system fragmentation? Why do we get a large number of parties? institutional factors sociological factors
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Sociological Factors Cleavages: What are they?
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