Japanreformfree - Electoral Reform Japan Questions Why did...

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Electoral Reform: Japan
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Questions Why did reforms pass? Why in 1994? What were the perceived flaws in the existing system? Why were the new rules/institutions chosen?
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Why would incumbents change the rules? Two motivations: 1. Outcome-contingent 2. Act-contingent Reform is always a combination
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Pre-reform System SNTV-review Coordination challenges associated with SNTV Vote division Product differentiation How to get voters to vote the way the party wants? Pork Gift giving ( koenkai )
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Perceived Flaws 1. Hyper-personalism 2. Factionalism 3. One-party dominance
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Perceived Flaws 1. Hyper-personalism 2. Factionalism 3. One-party dominance 4. Incumbency dominance 5. High levels of corruption/money politics
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Why 1994? Long history of failed reform attempts Scandals in late 1980s and early 1990s=> electoral reform back on the agenda Opposition proposes MMS LDP splits--loses majority (1993) New government excludes LDP Compromise struck in 1994 between coalition and LDP.
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