minrepfree - MinorityRepresentation 4/07/09...

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Minority Representation 4/07/09
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Evolution of Voting Rights U.S. Constitution: Article I, Section 4: The times, places and manner of holding elections for Senators and Representatives shall be prescribed in each State by the Legislature thereof; but the Congress may at any time by law make or alter such regulations, except as to places of choosing Senators. 14th Amendment (1868), Section 1 :…No state shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States…nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. 15th Amendment (1870), Section 1 : The right of the citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged…on account of race. ..
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Evolution of Voting Rights Background Compromise of 1877 Jim Crow Laws + minority disenfranchisement (1880s-1965) Black voting registration level in deep South around 3% (ca. 1940)
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Evolution of Voting Rights From ballot access to effective votes Key judicial precedents Smith v. Allwright (1944) Prohibited white primaries on grounds that primaries are essential to electoral process, and so protected under 15th Amendment Gomillion v. Lightfoot (1960) Overruled redrawing of Tuskegee’s municipal boundaries to exclude blacks 15th Amendment nullifies sophisticated as well as simple-minded modes of discrimination Beginning of shift from court protection of vote to protection of effective vote Baker v. Carr (1962) and Reynolds v. Sims (1964) Apportionment of state legislative districts judiciable under 14th and 15th amendments
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Evolution of Voting Rights Voting Rights Act 1965 Equal right to vote, not equal effect of vote Abolished literacy tests, civics tests, poll taxes for federal elections Section 2: prohibited states to “deny or abridge” right to vote based on race
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This note was uploaded on 04/07/2009 for the course POLISCI 389 taught by Professor Allenhicken during the Winter '09 term at University of Michigan.

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minrepfree - MinorityRepresentation 4/07/09...

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