ex 1 study guide - Study Guide for Exam 1 Zoology 470 2009...

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Exam format You can expect a good chunk of the exam to be short answer questions (i.e., 1-2 sentence response). Other types of questions, including identification, multiple choice, matching, and true/false, will also be present, but don't count on them being the largest portion of the exam. In addition, there has been an emphasis in class on experiments and what they tell us about mechanisms of early development. These are really important, and you should understand them thoroughly. The text should be used to reinforce in-class material. Your best study hints will come from last year’s exam. Remember that it’s on the course web site. Topics for Exam 1 Introduction to development What are the big ideas that developmental biologists study? What are some techniques that allow them to study such questions? What is the organizer ? What is fate mapping ? Be sure you are familiar enough with the “big ideas” to provide definitions (e.g. differentiation , morphogenesis ). What is conditional specification ? Autonomous specification ? Totipotency ? What is " mosaic development "? Localized determinants ? Be able to cite examples of each, and be able to describe an experiment that could used to test the state of specification of a cell or tissue using classical techniques. Genomic equivalence What experiments in amphibians indicate the genomic equivalence of nuclei? What does this tell us about how the nucleus exerts effects on differentiated cells? What do chromosome puffs tell us about differential gene activation in differentiated tissues? How were the experiments performed that resulted in Dolly? "Cumulina" the mouse? What do we know about how normal Dolly really was at the cellular and molecular level? Is this a universal problem for cloned mammals? What is the state of legislation in this country regarding human cloning? Based on your supplemental readings, what are the major proposed uses of mammalian cloning ? What is the difference between reproductive and therapeutic cloning ? Biologically, why is human reproductive cloning deemed unsafe? What is " large offspring syndrome ", and what is it thought to be caused by? Be able to describe the current situation regarding success in cloning humans, including fraud by the South Korean group in recent human cloning experiments. You should also be able to explain why , in theory, therapeutic cloning is potentially superior to general use of ES cells in human patients. Also be able to state whether therapeutic cloning has been achieved in primates. Mammalian early embryos 1. Compaction and blastocyst formation: How are allophenic mice produced? What is totipotency ? What experiments demonstrate that cells from uncompacted mammalian embryos are totipotent ? What is compaction ? What are the two basic types of cells in early mammalian embryos at the 16-cell stage and beyond? What do trophoblast
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ex 1 study guide - Study Guide for Exam 1 Zoology 470 2009...

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