lect 11 - Microbial Nutrition and Growth Learning goals

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Microbial Nutrition and Growth
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Learning goals Classification of microbes based on their nutrition Understand culture media nomenclature What are the parameters of growth, and how to determine growth rates Microbial division: binary fission, budding and filamentous growth Environmental selective pressures, e.g, temperature, O2, pH, etc.
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Lecture Outline Bacterial Nutrition Macronutrients Micronutrients Growth Factors Nutritional classes of microorganisms Bacterial Growth Phases of growth Growth rate equation Environmental Effects on Growth of Bacteria Temperature Oxygen
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E. coli cell composition
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Nutrition Nutrients: Chemicals used for anabolism (biosynthesis) and catabolism (energy generation). Macronutrients: required in large amounts Micronutrients: required in small amounts
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Macronutrients Element % of dry weight Source Function Carbon 50 organic compounds or CO2 Main constituent of cellular material Oxygen 20 H2O, organic compounds, CO2, and O2 Constituent of cell material and cell water; O2 is electron acceptor in aerobic respiration Nitrogen 14 NH3, NO3, organic compounds, N2 Constituent of amino acids, nucleic acids nucleotides, and coenzymes Hydrogen 8 H2O, organic compounds, H2 Constituent of organic compounds and cell water. Also important in energy generation as protons. Phosphorus 3 inorganic phosphates (PO4) Constituent of nucleic acids, nucleotides, phospholipids, PS, teichoic acids, etc
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Carbon source Needed for almost all parts of cell Sources Carbon dioxide Sugars Organic acids Fatty acids Amino acids http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/C/key.ht
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Hydrogen and oxygen Again needed for much of cell Constituents of organic matter and H2O Oxygen: terminal electron acceptor in aerobic respiration.
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Nitrogen 12-15% dry weight of a cell Needed for amino acids - proteins nucleic acids - DNA peptidoglycan Sources Organic Amino acids Nucleic acids Inorganic NO3- (nitrate) NH3 (ammonia) Nitrogen fixers can use N2 http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/N/key.ht
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Phosphorous Needed for Phospholipids Nucleic acids ATP synthesis Source Inorganic phosphate (PO43-) Some organics degraded by phosphatases. http://www.webelements.com/webelements/elements/text/P/key.h
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Micronutrients Element % of dry weight Source Function Sulfur 1 SO4, H2S, So, organic sulfur compounds Constituent of cysteine, methionine, glutathione, several coenzymes Potassium 1 Potassium salts Main cellular inorganic cation and cofactor for certain enzymes Magnesium 0.5 Magnesium salts Inorganic cellular cation, cofactor for certain enzymatic reactions Calcium 0.5 Calcium salts Inorganic cellular cation, cofactor for certain enzymes and a component of endospores Iron 0.2 Iron salts Component of cytochromes and other proteins and a cofactor for some enzymatic reactions
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Sulfur Needed for
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lect 11 - Microbial Nutrition and Growth Learning goals

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